Saho to English Dictionary

by Moreno Vergari



aawaqhte what time? when?
aaginah in what manner? how?
aadac pregnancy (of animals)
aafa respiration rel to oofowe ~
aafaati-nizaam respiratory system
aagedda see aa
aaginah see aa
aakam arriving first, arriving before, preceding, doing before
aalih with
aariyotta kicking
aawaqhte see aa
abaare to curse
abaaro curse
abadan never
abakbak humus
abar defect, flaw, imperfection, fault
abax decay,rot, dirt, filth
abaxe to go rotten, to go bad, to become dirty
abayshe to finish, to complete
abayshima end, completion, the last, the final rel to abayshe !
abayshimolle eventually ~ abayshima
hintiya infinity, infinite, endless
abayshima-male see abayshima
abayshimolle see abayshima
abayshinan finishing, closing
abba 1. father 2. chief, leader ~
abbaagubbax snail
abbamalë orphan (fatherless)(female)
abbamale orphan (fatherless)(male)
abburh pledge, pawn
abcake 1. fenugreek (plant and seed) 2. beverage made with grained seeds of fenugreek
abe to make, to do, to perform
abeesa type of grass
abiino mother’s family
abina the doing, making, act, action, reaction
abi-numa maternal aunt (the wife of mother’s brother) from abo and numa
abite to make, to do sth for one’s own benefit
abitto 1. act, action, reaction, deed 2. verb (gram) ~ abittodde
ashishe to invest, to exploit, to capitalize
abnan the doing, making, act, action, reaction
abo grandfather, maternal uncle, mother’s brother ~
abi-numa aunt (uncle’s wife)
aboocashara rifle
aboyya grandmother
abqal germination
abrha half
abriiqh jug, pitcher
abur stable, cowshed
abuusumä niece, granddaughter
abuusuma nephew, grandson
acaash nutrition
acakkan trying
acan frog
acdar discouragment, demoralization
achchanin nm deaf person
adabe politeness ~
adabe abite to be polite,
adabe-le to be calm/quiet/polite,
adabe-male to be rude/impolite rude
adabe-le see adabe
adabe-male see adabe
adda interior, depth
addaako see adda
addacasa palm of the hand, sole of the foot
adde 1.elder sister
adde, among, on
addeele pt in particular, especially
addosa 1. addition 2. adjective (gram)
adducta handle
adhdhic sprain, strain
adhdhiice to strain a muscle
adox num three ~ adooxan
kee taman num thirteen
adra type of greens
adraashsha address
adugra type of bean(s)
af nm mouth ~ afti-bacla mediator for a marriage (male)
afa nf opening, doorway
afanfan repellent
afar four ~ affara nukurle rectangle, right-angled
affaran kee taman fourteen
afayit desert
afcaado heart
Afcabet (city of) Afabet
afi hurry, urgency, speed
afite to hurry (intr)
afkan turning
Afriqqa Africa
afti-tiya num first from
af and tiya
agaafaf nm gathering, picking up
agaaga 1.level, equivalent, equal (in measurement) 2. near, beside
agaagishe 1. to level, to balance 2. to put in order
agaagite vII to be the same, to be equal, to be levelled
agada wrist
agana upper part, superior part,
aganalle on, upon, over
aganalle see agana
agiirinna cleverness, heroism, bravery
agiirishe to encourage, to motivate
agiirite to be clever/ brave/heroic
agirö clever person (female), brave, heroine
agiro nm clever person (male), brave, hero
agle 1. mixture (of things, people or animals), union 2. conference,
agoogishe to cover
agrab 1. freezing, congealment  2. coagulation
ahe int what?
ahle relative(s)
ajnabi foreigner(s), stranger(s), tourist(s)
ak pp to, from [a, da]
akah pp with, by, to
akankan shiver, shudder
akat rope(s), string(s)
akaxdad squatting, crouching
akaxkax knocking
akettö another one, the other one (female)
aketto another one, the other one (male)
aki ind other, another
akiya nkidney
akkanih immediately
akkinnan see ekke
akkinnan whatever, anyone, some, each;
akkinnanikkelle everywhere ~ yakko kibah even though, however
akkinnanikkelle see ekke
akko from
akmal completing, finishing
akoobar 1. cold wind  2. sandstorm
akottä meeting, conference
akotta set (mat)
akuula elsewhere
ala goats~ alat-ilo nf flock (of goats)
alaa ripeness. cooking
alaaki species of shrub(s)
alaama weaver
alammats painting (walls)
alaqhlaqh painting (walls)
alaye to become ripe, to become cooked
alayshe to cook, to ripen, to mature
alca species of plant(s) (Cissus rotundifolia)
ale to roast, to toast
aleele to reach and to pick up
aleminiyum aluminium
alfeena lid
alfenta closing
alfum closing
alife to close, to cover
alifnan closing
alle 1. int where?
alle 2. pp to, at
alluula wild animal(s), beast(s)
alo roasted grain
alsä nf moonlight
alsa 1. moon 2. month
amaa dem this, that
amaagabo therefore, meanwhile, in the meantime,
amaaginah 1. like that, as such  2. without , free (without payment, without time, amalle there,
amaybalih like that, also, at same timecharge),
amaawaqhte then, at that amaydo so, though, therefore
amaagabolle see amaa
amaagedda see amaa
amaaginah see amaa
amaan peace
amaana entrusting
amaawaqhte amaa
amal habit
amallanik immediately
amalle see amaa
amarrash marching, march
amashshath combing, dressing one’s hair
amaybalih see amaa
amaydo see amaa
ambattan dispersion
ambuuzute to become grey
ambuz grey
amebba amoeba
Ameerika America
amfaa sifting
amfaara reproduction, fertility
amfaddag expansion
amfalaala difference, division, separation
amlalakka mistaking, mistake
ammaa warmness, warmth
ammaakam rivalry, race
ammaazan weighing
ammacaacaz stretching
ammakaakam rivalry, competition
ammangad resemblance, similarity, likness
ammaxadaari administrator
ammaye to become warm
ammayshe to warm
amnatsaatsag repelling
amo 1. head 2. chief  3. top ~ amot-xanxanta nf skull, cranium
amolle see amo amoorikab cold (illness)
amoorikabite to catch a cold
amraacad wriggling, gesticulating, toss
amrar solution, digestion
amre order, command, imperative (gram)
amsaana agreement
amuula the place that is there, there, therein !
amuulalle towards
amuulalle see amuula
amwaaras inheritance, heritage
amwaasab interbreeding, pollination
amxabbash going in prison
Amxara Amhara (people and language) ~ amxari-cuure nf agave, sisal (Agave sisalana)
anada nf skin
ananaas pineapple
anda when?
andam remorse, regret, repentance
andhadhdhowe to become green
andharha v to be green
andhax noise, voice
andhaxe to make noise
andodobba turning upside-down, overturning
andodoodobba rolling, tumbling
aneemiya anemia
angu breast
angud thunder
aniina being, life, existence, survival
anna aunt (father’s or mother’s sister) pl annun m; ~ annat-bacla nm uncle (aunt’s husband)
anqarrab readiness
anrab tongue
anrabaalë great talker, talkative, chatterbox, chatty (female)
anrabaale great talker, talkative, chatterbox, chatty (male)
ansoola sheet
antsag repelling, refusing, rejecting
antsaqh splash
anu pr I
aqcazit skilled, skilful
aqhaas measuring the lenght of sth
aqhliim region, zone
aqhsas repetition (in teaching)
Aqhurdat (city of) Agordat/Agordet
araadishe vII to groan, to moan
araado groan, moan
arac gravel
arace to crush the fingers
aracnan crushing the fingers
arar painrel to ararishe, ararite
ararishe to cause to pain, to cause to suffer
ararite v to pain, to suffer
arax path, way pl arux m ~
arax magraco fcrossroads,
arax muyfulu crossroads, junction
araz species of tree(s) (Osyris quadripartita = O. abyssinica)
arco tramp
arcot yoke
arda run, running
arde ground, country, nation
are v to bite
arene snail
argud species of tree(s) (Maytenus senegalensis)
argufta type of lizard arhabbash sticking, joining
arharhe to shiver, to shudder, to judder
arharho nf shiver, shudder
arhcarhe vII to moo, to bleat (of goats and sheep)
arhcarhö nf rope used by women for tying sth on the back
arhcarho nm moo
arhiifo nf pancreas
arhin nm gland(s)
arhuurhe vII to become wet
arooda nm landslide, landslip
arranshi nm orange fruit (s)
arranshooni nm orange (colour)
arriime vII to be bitten
arrite vII to be bitten
arro nf bite (of animals)
arteri nf artery
arufe nm sewing
arum nm bite, biting
arure nf 1. summary  2. sedimentation
aruuce1 vIII to be wet
aruuce2 vII to become
aruucuse vII to wet
arxibe vII to receive hospitality, to be invitated
arxibishe vII to give hospitality, to invitate, to receive (tr)
arxibisheenä nf hostess
arxibisheena nm host
arxibishnan nm giving hospitality, inviting, receiving
asal nm drawing, painting
asal nm laugh, laughing
asalxan nm smoothing
asammar nm nailing
asbidaale nm hospital
ascalash nm making heavy
ascallam nm training, teaching
ascandhaa nm making small
ase vII to spend the day, to pass the day
asgaacaz nm transferring
asgolla nm mixing
asgoogolla nm mixing and stiring, mixing together
ashaffat nm rebel
ashshenta nm improving, improvement, progress
ashshiine vII to envy, to be jealous
ashshiineenä nf envier, envious/jealous person(female)
ashshiineena nm envier, envious/jealous person (male)
ashshin nm envy, jealousy
ashshoomiya nf defamation, slander
askaala nf stairs, ladder
askabar nm increasing the price
askamal nm completing, concluding
askaren nm skeleton
askok nm dirt, dirtiness ~
askok kale vII to circumcise (of male)
askokkowe vII to become dirty
askokkoyshe vII to make dirty, to stain
askoola nf school
askotta nf gathering
asle nm origin, race (division of humankind)
asli nm original, special Asmara nf (city of) Asmara
asporti nf exercise of the body, sport
asqara n teaching
asqath nm pressing, pushing
asqayyar nm changing, shifting
assaxattat nm wonder, surprise
astaat nm approximation, estimate
astantan nm memory, remembrance
asuuso nf warning
asxaadar nm putting in order, arranging, arrangment
asxabar nm completing, completion
asxabbar nm informing, indicating, information, indication asxayta nf dew, frost
ataame nf species of shrub(s) or small tree(s) (Rhus natalensis, R. retinorrhoea )
atharcash nm pressure
atin pr (subject) you
attobuus nf bus
atu pr (subject) you
awaaj nm proclamation, declaration
awalwal nm polishing
awde nm house’s door (for women)
awkä nf child (female), girl
awka nm child (male), boy
awla int where?
awlih int which?
awtista nm driver
awur nm bull, animal for mounting
awwaaxa nf insect(s), worm(s) ~
awwaaxatsumme nm insecticide
awwal nm the former, the previous, the first! awwalah just (before)
awwalah see awwal
axaddad nm estimating, measuring
axallaf nm measurement in cubits axankash nf limping
axbash nm putting in prison
axfas nm 1. scooping up (with a scoop or by hand) 2. heavy (food or beverage), indigestible
axmad nm praise
axmag nm bleeding, blood-letting
axqaqh nm dissolving, solution, digestion
axraqh nm 1. rage  2. sinking
axtam nm 1. printing  2. closing, closing up, pluging, blocking ay1 dem this, that ay2 int what? ayim,
aymi why? aymih,
aymihi why, how?
aybaddal nm exchanging, bartering
aybarkat nm economizing, saving money
aycä nf new-born (female), baby-girl
ayca nm new-born (male), baby-boy
aydaras nm teaching
ayeh see ay2
ayidhdha int how much? how many? from ay and idhdha; ! ayidhdhah what? (asking the time)
ayidhdhah see ayidhdha
ayim see ay2
aykee pt until, till, up to
aylolowa nm 1. confusion 2. spoof
ayma nf scraps, left-overs
aymanga nm multiplicating, multiplication, duplication
aymangada nf acting (drama), performance, imitation
aymarar nm dissolving ~ aymarartikarima nf digestive organ
aymarax nm guiding, leading
aymasaasal nm similarity, likeness, resemblance
aymi see ay2
aymih see ay2
aymociya nf repairing, reparation, adjustment
aynaqhas nm subtraction, deduction
ayoodin nm iodine
ayrac nm light shower
ayrace vII to rain (light shower)
ayrhabbash nm 1. causing to stick, causing to join 2. causing to squat, causing to crouch
ayro nf sun ~ ayrot nizaam solar system ~ ayrot-dhuma nf 1. west 2. sunset
ayti nf ear ~ ayti waye vII to be deaf,
aytitwayto nf deafness
aytimalë nf deaf (female)
aytimale nm deaf (male)
ayya nm elder brother
ayyer nm air ~
ayyeratharcash nm air pressure,
ayyerxaalaat nm weather
ayzawwar nm driving
azaan nm muezzin’s call to prayer
azar nm heredity\
azgalab nm hare, rabbit
azhar nm appearing, being visible, being cleared up, becoming clear
azzo nf young cow(s)




baab nm door (without door-frame),
baahe vII to bring, to bring forth
baakko nf box, packet
baalic nm 1. parasite 2. predator
baalijja nf suitcase
baani nf bread
baanotta nm tendon
baanto nm 1. kind of vegetal rope
2. tendon
baar nm 1. bar (pub)
2. bar (of wood or metal)
baarho nf ground, earth, country ~
baarhot-adda nf underground
baariya nf slave
baarrä nf old (female)
baarra nm old (male)
baarriino nm ageing
baarrowe vII to age,
to become old
baarud nm gun-powder
Baarunto nf (city of) Barentu
baaxa nf poverty, poorness
baaxat nf bottom, the deepest place
(of ocean or sea), ocean trench
baaxentä nf poor woman
baaxenta nm poor man
baaxite vII to become poor
baazo nf vase
bacaalage nf rude, crude person
bacal-gibre nm blacksmith
baclä nf owner (female)
bacla nm 1. husband
2. owner (male)
baclaa nm treatment, care,
baclayshe vII to treat,
to take care of, to assist
bacshaaraa nm pilgrim, trader
bad nm sea ~ badalle gerhe vII to sail,
to navigate, badti-baabur nf ship,
badaana f/badnit
badale nm change
bade vII to die (of animals and fire),
to be estinguished, to go out (of fire)
badiila nf shovel
badishe vII to switch off,
to put out/to extinguish (a fire, a lamp)
badla nf suit of clothes (for man)
badna nm corpse (of animal)
before the decomposition
badnan nm dieing (of animals)
badti-gerho nf sailing, navigation,
badti-gimam nm coast, beach,
seaside, seashore
badti-wasan nm coast, beach,
seaside, seashore
bahaayim nm animals
bahar nm hero
bahge nm happiness, joy, fun
bahti nm bringing
bakal nm kid, baby he-goat
bake vII to finish
bakhaare vII to be thirsty
bakhar nm thirsty
bakhil nm stingy person
bakhte nm 1. chance 2. luck
bakitto nf ending, finishing ~
bakitto hintiya nm infinity, infinite,
endless bakitto-male vIII
to be endless
bakitto-male see bakitto
bakkeela nm hare, rabbit
baklo nf kid(s), baby she-goat(s)
baknan nm finishing , ending
bakteeriya nf bacteria
balafon nm ceiling of planks
of wood
balasa nm prickly pear(s),
Indian fig(s) (Opuntia ficus-indica)
baldi nf bucket
baldunga nm broad bean(s)
balih pp as, like
ballö nf mother-in-law
ballo nm father-in-law
bambulla nf toy, puppet
banaajir nm bracelet(s),
banaana nm banana(s)
bandeera nf flag
banka nm bank
(deposit of money)
banthallooni nf trousers
banziin nm petrol
baqhla nf mule(s)
bar nm 1. night 2. age ~
barti-xilla nf night-blindness
barad nm ice, snow
barakä nf 1. blessing, prosperity,
felicity, benediction
2. third brew of coffee
baraka nm uninhabited place
barbare nf capsicum, red pepper,
barhä nf daughter ~
yi-barhahi-bacla nm my son-in-law
barha nm son ~ yi-barhihi-numa nf
barheerha nf thief(s), robber(s)
barheerhite vII to become a thief,
to become a robber
barhishe vII to separate, to divide
barhqaqhaco nf thunderbolt
barhsa nm difference, separation,
barid nm small rainy season (lowland)
barii nm neutral, free
barkat nm blessing, prosperity,
felicity, benediction
barkuma nf pillow
barmale nf (of) the same age,
peer group
barnaamij nm programme
barneetha nm hat
baro nf mole (of skin), dot
barolle pt near, beside
barraad nm tea kettle
barre nm 1. Countryside
2. village ~ barri-baabur nf railway train
bartabrha nf midnight
bas! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to cats)
basaaka nf sweetness
basak nm sweet thing
basak-erhxe vIV intr 1. to be sweet
2. to be handsome
basal nm onion(s)
basarö nf awkward, clumsy (female),
an incompetent housewife
basaro nm awkward
basiir nm blind man
basiira nf blind woman
baska nf honey
basö nf past basodde, basolle before,
basoh once, already, early ~
basot-iggida the year before last year
baso1 nm forehead
baso2 pt said when inviting
basodde see basö
basoh see basö
basolle see basö
bathal nm hero
batke nm carcass
baw nf invasion rel to baye, bayshe ~
baxar ya/mabaxxara eighth,
baxxaran kee taman eigthteen
baxuuro nf week
baye vII to be invaded
bayshe vII to invade
beceera nm ox (castrated or not)
beedal nm hyena
beela nm invasion, conquest
beelayshe vII to invade
beelayte vII to be invaded
beeno nf colour
beenoli nm petal
beera nm tomorrow
beetalbo nm unmarried people
beete vII to eat
beexa nm the day after tommorow
beezza/beeda nm substitution,
sacrifice (unto death) ~
beezza/beeda ekke vI to substitute,
to sacrifice oneself (unto death)
Bejja nf Beja
Beleeno nm Bilen
beri beri nm beriberi
betro nf glass
bettiishe vII to give food,
to nourish, to feed
betto nf act of eating ~
bettot-care, bettot-meela nm
bexsite vII to surprise,
to amaze
bexso nf wonderful/marvellous/
surprising/amazing thing
beye vII to take, to take away
bicishra nf business, trade
biil nm second-born
biile vII to bleed
biilo nm blood ~ biili-tishshu nf
blood tissue, biili-heeliyo nm
blood circulation, biili-dagna nf anemia ,
biili-garube nm blood coagulation,
biili-filco nm blood group
biisha nf disappearing, disappearance
bikhle nm stinginess
bikishtan nm church
bilaash nm trash
bilca nf elegance
bile vII to appear (of the new moon),
to appear (of the first day of the month)
bilitslits nm glitter, reflection (of things)
bilitslits-erhxe vIV intr to glitter,
to reflect(of things)
biliyon num billion
billikka nf ornament for
bride’s forhead
bilo nf new moon, the first
day of the month
binto nf bridge
bireen nf machine-gun
birra nm beer
birrig nm fright, scare, fear
birriige vII to be frightened,
to be scared
birriigishe vII to frighten,
to scare
birsin nm lentil(s)
birta nm iron, metal
birtaagudda nm grasshopper
bish-erhxe vIV intr to disappear,
to get lost
bishkiletta nf bicycle
bisho nm appearance, colour,
bissiraata nf announcement of
good news/glad tidings
biyaake nf wound, sore
biyaakishe vII to hurt, to wound
biyaakite vII to hurt oneself,
to wound oneself
biyashshiite vII to forget
biyashsho nf forgetfulness
biyassa nm bus station
biyatti nf dish, plate
boddina nf incisor tooth
bohsa nf laziness
bol nm precipice, (sheer)
bola nf flame
bolole vII to blaze up ~ bolola
bololishe vII to light the fire
bololnan nm combustion
boodifa nm last year
bookä nf baldness
booka nm bald person
bool num hundred ~ bool ya num
hundredth, bool sagla ninety
boorha nf flat area, plain
boosh nm glass (for drinking)
booya nf paint
boozo/boodo nf 1. hole 2. den, lair,
boronle nf bottle(s),
glass drinking-flask(s) berenle
borosho nm anchor
borsa nf bag, case
bosolo nf cartridge (of a bullet)
bothoce vII to split open
boxo nf wood
boxortomon num eighty
boyla nm raid
bub nf shell(s)
budhdhe nm penis
buhto nm brown
buhus nm lazy person
bukalle see buka
bukkuse vII to take by force,
to uproot, to pull out,
to eradicate, to extirpate,
to extract
bukkusnan nm taking by force,
uprooting, pulling out, eradicating,
extirpating, extracting
bullaace nf dust
buluus nm policeman (-men)
bumba nf pump, tap
bunnaahe nf spinach
buqhle nf sprout(s)
burgudda nm young man
burkutta nf kind of bread
burtukhaan nm orange (fruit)
buruuruse vII to winnow
bus nm vagina
busa pt only
bustha nf envelope, post, mail ~
busthat-care nm post office
butur nm piece(s), fragment(s)
buudeena nm container for milk
buufe nf stove for baking bread
buuhute vII to become brown
buule vII to germinate
buulnan nm germination
buun nm coffee
buundhaa nm pestle for
the ‘madagdag’
buure nf soil
buxta nf possession, ownership,




caada nf custom, tradition
caafa nm front part of the neck
caafiyat nm health
caafiyatlë nf healthy person (female)
caafiyatle nm healthy person (male)
caafiyat-le see caafiyat
caafulle nm species of acacia(s) ‘?
Egyptian thorn’, ‘?White-galled acacia,
White whistling thorn’ (?Acacia nilotica ?
Acacia seyal)
caage vII 1. to hope 2. to beg
caagu nm yellow
caaguyna vIII to be yellow
caaguynite vII to become yellow
caaj nm mother-of-pearl
caala nf canes, stalks
caalam1 nm species of plant(s)
caalam2 nf world, planet Earth ~
caalamti-fasle nf continent
caamus nm species of shrub(s) or
small tree(s)
caaqhil nm wise/sage man
caaqhila nf wise/sage woman
caasa nf fish ~ caasat-agaafaf,
caasat-askotta nm fishing
caashir nm 1. chance, opportunity
2. luck, fortune ~ caashirbacla,
caashir-wanna nm lucky man,
caashir-baclä, caashir-wannä nf
lucky woman
caasima nf capital
caawino nf delay
caawishe vII to cause to delay
caawite vII to delay (intr)
caaza nf back, behind ~
caazalle gaxe vII to retreat,
to come back
cabbaas nm sixth brew of coffee
cabo nf lean (meat)
cadaa nm species of shrub(s) or
small tree(s), ‘toothbrush tree’
(Salvadora persica)
cadaaga nf market
cadaare vII to recite poems
cadad nm number
cadale1 nm reproach, rebuke
cadale2 vII to reproach, to rebuke
cadar nm poem, poetry
cadareenä nf poetess
cadareena nm poet
cadarnan nm the recital of a poem,
Caddi-Khwala nf (city of)
Adi Qwala/Adi Quala
Caddi-Qayyix nm (city of)
Adi Keih/Adi Kaieh/Adi Kaih/Adi Qayeh
caddowe vII to become white
caddoyshe vII 1. to make white
2. to make clear, to specify
cadeeger nm orange (colour)
cadeela nm rainwater
cadeelaw nm barley
cadhdhi nm friend
cadle nm justice
cado vIII to be white rel to caddowe,
caddoyshe, cide1 ~ cado basal nm garlic
cadooxangal nm brain
cadur pt never
caduu nm enemy(-ies)
cafad nm happiness, joy
cafade vII to be happy
Cafar nm Afar
cafra nf name of a muslim
feast celebrated to commemorate
Abraham’s sacrifice
cafur nm type of lizard
cafuu nf excuse, forgiveness
cafuu-erhxe vIV intr to excuse,
to forgive
cafuuka nf excuse, forgiveness~
cafuuka essere vII to apologize
cafuwa nf excuse, forgiveness~
cafuwa essere vII to apologize
cafuwaaka nf excuse, forgiveness
cagab nm crime, guiltiness ~
cagab abe vII to commit a crime
cagab-bacla/cagab-wanna nm guilty,
cagara nm scab, scabies
caggamsiite vII to ruminate
caggamsiiteenä nf ruminant (female)
caggamsiiteena nm ruminant (male)
caggamta nm rumination
cagum nm canal for irrigation
cagun nm dough, paste (of flour or
meal and liquid)
caguura nm big thing, great thing
cahde nm 1. promise 2. appointment
cajab nm wonderful/marvellous/
surprising/amazing thing
cakale vII to wash oneself,
to have a wash
cakalishe vII to wash
cakalite vII to be washed
cakalso nf bathe, washing (things)
cakana nf try, test, experiment
cako nf spider
calaama nf objective, aim,
goal, end
cale nf 1. kind 2. race
calluume nf large bird(s) of prey,
‘Egyptian vulture’
calma nf monument, statue, pillar
caluwe nm escape, running
camaara nf building, edifice,
camaza nf damage, bad effect
camba nf pod(s), hull(s)
cambaale vII to stay, to wait,
to keep
camburre nf fog
camidda nm forked pole, column
camuule vII to wilt
candal nm species of caper tree(s)
(Capparis tomentosa)
candhiirhe vII to be torn,
to be lacerated
candhiirhishe vII to tear,
to lacerate
candhiirho nm laceration, tear
cange nm enemy
canqar nm uvula
cantura nm colt
canzawä/candawä nf rat, mouse (female)
canzawa/candawa nm rat, mouse (male)
caqhle nm shrewdness,
intelligence, wisdom
car! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to sheep)
cara nf place, area, space
caraamo nm roof caraamom
carab nm arabic, arabian(s)
carabiya nf barrow
caraf nm door (without door-frame)
caran nm sky
carat nm/f bed
carcarto nm border of the fireplace
care1 nm 1. house, room 2. clan,
family ~ cari-bago/cari-garba nm ceiling,
cari-buka nm roof
care2 vII 1. to grow (intr), to grow up
2. to be disgusted, to be bored
cargayna nm chameleon
carha1 nm 1. one side of the lower jaw
2. molar
carha2 nm 1. appeal, appearance, attraction
2. side, faction, team ~
1. carha-mece vIII to be pretty,
to be handsome, carh-uma vIII to be ugly,
2. carhah gaxe vII to lie down
carhaheena nf lying down,
the place to lie down
carhahintima nf lying down,
the place to lie down
carha-mece see carha2
carhamicne nf prettiness,
beauty, handsomeness
from carha2 and micne
carhbanta nf cheek
carhe vII to plait (the hair)
carhiirhoyta nf cheek
carhite vII to plait one’s hair
carhumne nf ugliness from
carha2 and umne
carke nm constant companion,
special friend
carmij nm species of plant(s)
(?Sarcostemma viminale, ?
Sarcostemma andongense)
carmo nm belt
carnan nm 1. growing
2. disgusting
caroora nf snake
carraz/carrad nm being destitute
of adequate clothing,
being poorly dressed
carraze/carrade vII to be destitute
of adequate clothing,
to be poorly dressed
carsa nf small pelt (to sit on)
carsime vII to be brought up,
to be reared
carufe nm rest rel to curfa,
curfen, macrafo, ucrufe,
uscurufe, ussucurrufe
cas! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to goats)
casa vIII to be red
casaala nf bedbug(s)
casaaxaawa nf the red sky
during the sunset
Casab nm (city of) AssaB
casbe nm employment
casbentö nf employee (female)
casbento nm employee (male)
casbishe vII to employ
cashkareyna vIII to be white
and red
cashsho nf grass, cashsho bettam
casiini nm naked person rel
to casiino, casno; ~
casiinih gaxe vII to be naked
casiino nm nakedness
casiir nm juice, syrup
caskar nm soldier(s)
casno nm nakedness
caso nf malaria
cassowe vII to become red
cassoyshe vII to make red
catab nm play, sing, dance
catabe vII to play,
to dance, to sing
catir nm chick-pea(s), pea(s)
cawat nm praise
cawate vII to praise
cawayne nm locust(s),
cawda nm threshing-floor
cawle vII to faint
cawna nf groan (of animals)
cawne vII to groan
(intr) (of animals)
cawul nm fainting fit
cay nf ebony, ‘African ebony’
(Diospyros mespiliformis)
caydarruus nm incense
cayig! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to bulls, oxes)
cayna nf kind, type
cayne nm damage, damaging,
unserviceabl/useless/corrupt thing
caynishe vII to render useless,
to make dirty, to throw into disorder
caynite vII to become useless,
to become unserviceable,
to become dirty
cazaab nm suffering, torment,
agony, pain
cazaba nf hunger
cazala nf species of shrub(s)
(Carissa edulis)
cazuuma nf invitation
ceege vII to bend down (intr),
to lean (intr)
ceela nm a well
ceenab nm grape
ceerhö nf rump, buttocks,
bottom ~ ceerhot kurkurre nf buttock
ceerho nm raw/unripe thing(s)
ceero nm type of tick(s) (insect)
ceesaala nf small pelt (to sit on)
cha! pt ‘Go away!’
(said to donkeys) var !a!
chaaqhut nm chick(s)
chiqqa nf mud
cibaada nf worship, adoration, cult
cibdaan nm madness, craziness
cibiddi nf madwoman
cibna nf bride
cibra nf wonderful/marvellous/
surprising/amazing thing
cibri nf boat
cid nm feast
cida nf debt ~ cidat-wanna
nm debtor (male)
cidalë nf debtor (female)
cidale nm debtor (male)
ciddaye vII to lend, to
borrow (money)
cide1 nm whiteness
cide2 vII to throw away
cidme nf invitation
ciidishe vII to celebrate,
to commemorate
ciido nf sheep ciidot-ilo
nf flock (of sheep)
cija nf draw, drawing of lots
cijaaje vII to invent
cijaajeena nm craftsman ,
cikishe vII to entrust smb
to smb else
cikkishite vII to lean on,
to lean against, to depend on,
to rely on
cikso nf support
cilaagih pt slowly, carefully
cilbo nf maize
cilila nm type of grass
cililishe vII to shout for joy
cililo nf shout for joy,
cilisha vIII to be heavy,
to be hard
cilla nf fur
cillo nf rust
cillowe vII to become rusty
cilme nm knowledge,
theological knowledge
cilsha nf weight, being heavy
cimna/cibna nf bride
cinde nf sand
cindha vIII to be small,
to be young ~
cindha sambat nm Saturday
cindhaaferat nf little finger from
cindha and fera
cindhaane nm 1. smallness
2. youth, childhood
cindhaatih pt slowly
cindham nm children, sons
cindhamaso nm youth, childhood
cindhamasottä f young person
cindhookä nf child (female),
cindhooka nm child (male),
cingiro nf bark (of plants)
cirfe nm levelling lever
(of the plough)
cirhe1 nm pretty/handsome person
, beauty, shape (of things and animals)
cirhe2 nm grace (mercy of God)
cise nm redness
citro nf pot(s)
citta nm buttermilk, curd
ciyyo nf work, activity
codhdhite vII to crowd, to pile up
codhdho nf crowd, pile
cofnan nm panting, breathlessness
cokar nm excrements (of animals)
cokka nf ear ~ cokka waye vII
to be deaf, cokkat-cureena nf ear lobe
cokkamalë nf deaf person (female)
cokkamale nm deaf person (male)
cooda nm Greater kudu
(Tragelaphus strepsiceros)
coofe vII to gasp, to pant
coola nf dust storm, whirlwind
coona nf ruin
cubud nm madman
cuduf nm refuse, garbage, compost
cule vII to pour
cullu nm foal(s), colt(s)
culnan nm pouring
culul nm famine, lack of food
culuum nm science
cumaama nf turban
cumbulluk nm species of plant(s)
(?Solanum campylacanthum)
cumre nm age
cumute nm throat ~
cumuti-laxuu nm diphtheria
cundugule vII to be sleepy,
to be drowsy
cunga nm doum palm(s)
(Hyphaene thebaica =
H. dankaliensis)
cunuune vII to bend down
(intr), to lean (intr)
cunwaan nm address
cure vII to bear, to endure, to resist
cur-erhxe vIV intr to be sour
curfa nf chapter
curfen nm rest
curmuse vII to hole
curtaw nm resistance, endurance
curum nf small hole(s)
cusaabe nf newness, novelty
cusuba vIII to be new
cuud nm incense
cuuka nm cargo, load ~
cuuka oobishe/ cuuka ulluse vII
to unload, to put down (a load)
cuure1 nf aloe (Aloe macrocarpa)
cuure2 nf sourness
cuurhe nf cheek




daabbä nf stupid, dull (female)
daabba nm stupid, dull (male)
daacaynä nf old person or
animal (female)
daacayna nm old person or
animal (male)
daacaynino nm ageing
daaniyä nf judge (female)
daaniya nm judge (male)
daasa nf kind of traditional house
dabangare nf shade
dabbaal nm disrespectful,
dabbat nm silt
dabeela nm he-goat, male goat
dabre nm church
dabule nm 1. disrespect,
irreverence 2. rashness
daftar nm exercise-book,
dagar nm hair
dagge nf 1. fence 2. bracket
daggowe vII to become few,
to become little
dagna nf a little bit, smallness
dago vIII to be few, to be little ~
dago limo nf cheap thing
dagoori nf animal with much fur
dagor nm animal with much fur
dagudde nf container for milk
just milked
dagusatto m (seed/grain)
dagussa nm type of cereal(s),
‘Finger millet, Small millet’
(Eleusine corocana)
dagxa nf kind of porridge
dahab nm gold
dahaye vII to call
dakano nm elephant ~
dakani-iko nf ivory
dalale vII to liquefy, to melt
dalalso nf liquefying, melting
dalam nm bush
dallaala nm mediator, middle man
dallat nf umbrella
dambar nm forehead
dannux nm acne
daqhiiqha nf minute (time)
daraja nf rank, step, level,
degree, stage, grade
daranka nf ear lobe
darasa nm student(s)
darat nm boundary,
border, frontier
darib nm footprint, track
dariiro nm type of sorghum
daro nf fruit(s), seed(s)
of the fruits
darrac nm disappointment
darracishe vII to disappoint
darracite vII to be disappointed
darse nm lesson rel to darasa
darur nm cloud(s)
dat farfare/barbare see data
dat inti see data
dat ufuca see data
data vIII to be black, ditë ~
dat farfare/barbare nf black pepper
dataaxorh nm species of tree(s)
(Dovyalis abyssinica)
datala nf type of snake
dattowe vII to become black
dattoyshe vII 1. to make black
2. to calumniate, to slander
dawan nm bell
daw-erhxe vIV intr 1. to stand,
to stand up, to get up 2. to stop
debuub nm south ~
Debuub-Ameerika nf South America
Debuub-Ameerika see debuub
deebina nm species of shrub(s)
(Cadaba farinosa)
deece vII to call
deecera nf internal thigh pl deecerar m ~
deecerat-lafa nf femur
deecime vII to call, to be called
deeco nf call, calling
deedi nf cranium, skull cf amot-xanxanta,
karhkadhdhe, xanxanta
deese vII 1. to keep out,
don’t permit to enter, to stop,
to block 2. to protect
deeseena nm 1. defender
2. ring used to block the ‘mazwar’
deeso nf 1. stop, check point
2. defense
deheye vII to give back
deheynan nm giving back
Deqqemaxaare nf (city of)
derejja nf fourth brew of coffee
dessa vIII to be opaque
dessiime vII to forbid
dhaa nm stone(s)
dhaace vII 1. to beg 2. to bless
dhaacime vII to beg, to appeal
dhaaco nf blessing
dhaafi nf teff (Eragrostis tef)
dhaama nf buying
dhaame vII to buy
dhaarhe vII to intend
dhaarhite vII to have not eaten
dhaawe vII to make sound
dhaaweena nm consonant
dhaawisheena nm vowel
dhaban nm cheek
dhacam nm taste
dhacame vII to taste
dhacammucus nm nectar
dhacamto nf snack
dhaceena nm rope used
by women for tying sth on the back
dhacmiishe vII to give to taste,
to give to eat something
dhadhdhab nm proximity, vicinity,
dhagan until, till
dhage1 nf allotment (for cultivation),
farmland, kitchen-garden
dhage2 vII 1. to touch 2. to taste
dhagishe vII to give to taste,
to give to eat something
dhagnan nm touching
dhagso nf 1. Touch
2. taste, the thing that I give to taste
3. few money that I give
dhaguuma nm penis
dhala nm birth
dhale vII to bear, to give birth to
dhalishe vII to cause to give birth,
to cause to bear, to generate,
to reproduce (tr)
dhamaxe vII to become cool,
to become cold
dhambaaku nf stigma
dhame vII to be melted,
to be dissolved
dhamishe vII to melt,
to dissolve
dhamto nf sense, feeling
dhamxa nf coolness, chilliness,
dhamxina vIII to be cool, to be cold
dhamxishe vII to cool
dharh nm having not eaten
dharhaa nm leaf (leaves), leafage
dhashsha nm animal that is
sacrified at a funeral and
eaten by the people who
helped for the burial
dhasko nf butter (before boiling),
butter for hair
dhaso nm pelvis
dhaw nm sound, voice, speech ~
dhawtisanduqh nm larynx,
dhawo nm going for a day
without water (of animal stock)
dhawrhe vII to take care of,
to look after, to preserve,
to guard, to defende
dhawrheenä nf guard (female)
dhawrheena nm 1. guard,
2. headrest for men
dhawrho nf difense, guard
dhaxiine nm morning
dhaye vIII to be near, to be early
dhayenta nf approaching
dhayi nf unsatisfaction
dhayih recently
dhayih see dhaye
dhaylä nf newborn animal (female)
dhayla nm newborn animal (male) ~
dhayli-iko nm milk-tooth
dhayte vII to be unsatisfied
dhedhdhan nm 1. longness, length
2. height
dheerha vIII 1. to be long
2. to be tall
dheh pt early, soon, urgently
dherhgurat nf goitre (goiter)
dhexeena nf grainding, milling
dhiba nf fighting, war, battle,
dhibbaye vII to fight, to wage
dhibrho nm 1. catching, hold
2. volume 3. index, table of contents
dhic nm skill, ability, possibility
dhifo nm jewellery, ornaments
dhiglo nm milking
dhiice vII 1. to be able, can
2. to have enough
dhiicime vII to be possible
dhiimo nf tear
dhiine vII to sleep
dhiirhac nm rock
dhiishinna nf guarantee,
dhiite vII to choke (intr),
to be blocked up by food
(in the throat)
dhiiwa nf oath
dhiiwite vII to swear,
to take the oath
dhimmiyo nf drop
dhin nm sleep
dhintima nf couch
(the place where someone sleep on)
dhirhiye vII 1. to send
2. to set free
dhish nm guarantor
dhishe vII to establish,
to found
dhishshimnan nm establishment,
dhiyo nf choke, food blocked
(in the throat)
dhongol nm echo
dhorhcina nf hoof
dhowe vII to suck on
(the milk of the breast/udder)
dhoynä nf 1. sucker (female)
2. silly person (female)
dhoyna nm 1. sucker (male)
2. silly person (male)
dhoynan nm sucking on
(the milk of the breast/udder)
dhoyshe vII to breast-feed
dhoysheenä nf mammal (female)
dhoysheena nm mammal
dhume vII to set (of the sun),
to grow dark
dhumuse vII to darken,
to obscure
dhuune vII to smother (a fire)
dhuurhe nf ant(s) ~
dhuurhe qaca nm tse-tse fly(flies)
dibbi nm bear
dibishbish nm dimness, dimning
dibishbish-erhxe vIV intr
to be dimmed, to dim
dibne nf 1. chin 2. beard ~
dibnet-dagar nm beard
didde nm contrary, opposite
diddeh see didde
difeena nf seat, chair
difeye vII to sit down
difteeriya nm diphtheria
diga nf stick
digdiganle nm species of shrub(s)
(Otostegia integrifolia)
diggam nm second brew of coffee
digir nm play, sing, dance
digire vII to play, to dance, to sing
dihimhim nm dimness, dimming
dihimhim-erhxe vIV intr
to be dimmed, to dim
diin nm religion ~ diin-bacla/diin-wana nm
religious/spiritual person (male)
diin-baclä/diin-wannä nf religious/
spiritual person (female)
diiror nm back (part of the body)
dik nm village, place of birth,
nation, family
dikshineeri nm dictionary,
dimbi nf sweat
dimbiihe vII to perspire,
to sweat
dimiima nf light shower
dimiimishe vII to rain (light shower)
dingil nf girl, young unmarried woman
dinnish nm potato(es)
dir! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to cows)
diraasa nf learning
dirar nm supper, dinnerpl diror
diriirige vII to spin
diriirigite vII to feel dizzy
diriirigo nf rotation, dizzy
diriirigotta nm circle
dishti nm pan
ditë nf darkness
dite nm blackness
diwa nf medicine
doktor nm doctor
doola nf 1. government
2. nation
doolab nm deceit, deception
doolabe vII to deceive
doora nm drinking-trough
(place where the animals drink)
doore vII to select, to choose,
to prefer, to vote
dooro nf vote, election, choice
dor-ho nf chicken, cock, hen
dornan nm voting, electing,
dorona nf dust
dubba nf type of pumpkin(s)
dudco nf attack, assalt, raid,
offensive, strike
dudduba nm bulge,
protuberance, swelling
duddube vII to be swell,
to be bulge
dudub nm plain, flat land
duduce vII to confront,
to attack, to strike
dufla nf fight, struggle
duflal nm exercise,
problem (mat)
dufuwe vII to push
dugre nm ploughshare
duhe vII to consider,
to take in consideration,
to realize, to become aware of,
to notice
duhnan nm awarness,
duhsus nm reminding,
duhsuuse vII to remind
duka nf loam
dukka nf stool
dukkan nm shop
dulaase nf thickness,
dulusa vIII to be thick,
to be stout
duma nf rock
dumdaama nf blunting
dumdaame nf bluntness
dumdaamina vIII to be blunt,
to be not sharp
dumdam nm blunt,
not sharp thing
dummu nf cat(s)
durguma nf trachea,
durkukit nf step
durre nm disease
durruc nm threadbare
durut nm calf (calves)
duruus nm learning,
duube nm den, lair,
duudä nf fool/stupid person
duuda nm fool/stupid
person (male)




e vI to say
edebbe vI to give back
edee vI to go, to walk
edhdheerhe vI to be far from
eebexe vI to sell
eecete vI to step on,
to tread on, to walk,
to continue
eedece vI to be pregnant
(of animals)
eefece vI to give water to,
to water, to irrigate
eeleme vI 1. to confess,
to admit to 2. to weave
eelle vI to have, to be in
possession of, to get
eemene vI to believe,
to trust, to admit to,
to confess
eemere vI to command
, to order
eerhege vI to know,
to be familiar with,
to realize, to recognize
eerre vI to load
eexete vI to chew
eezeze vI to command,
to order
egeeceze vI to transfer
oneself, to move
egeelebe vI to ride
egeerece vI 1. to cut, to
divide, to saw 2. to cross
egerina vIII to be yellow
egerto nm yellow
eggerre vI to shelter
(from the rain) (tr)
ekette vI 1. to gather together,
to meet (intr)
2. to arrive safe and without
being lost
ekeye vI to fence in,
to enclose
ekkal nm thought, imagination,
supposition, assumption
ekke vI to be, to become,
to happen
ekkele vI to think that,
to imagine that, to suppose that
ekkolojji nm ecology
elee vI 1. to get lost
2. to be misled, to be mistaken
elleeze vI to shave oneself
emce vI to become good,
to improve
emcel nm ageing
emcelle vI to age, to become old
emeete vI to come
emege vI tr to fill
emfeere vI to breed (intr)
emlelekke vI to be mistaken,
to mistake (intr)
emmeceeceze/emmeceecede vI to stretch
emmeezene vI to weigh oneself
emmenge vI to be multiplicated
emmeseesele vI to agree (intr),
to fit (intr), to coincide, to seem
emneeberre vI to survive
emrocoocoze vI to stretch oneself
emseene vI to agree (intr),
to fit (intr), to coincide
emsemeemece vI to agree (intr),
to fit (intr), to coincide
emsheeqhele vI to be anxious,
to be worried
emweesebe vI to intermarry
(to marry people of different clans)
emzeegexe vI to quarrel
endedebbe vI to turn upside-down,
to overturn
endedeedebbe vI to roll (intr),
to tumble (intr)
endeewe vI to be medicated,
to be treated medically
endhewwe vI to approach,
to go near, to get closer
enebe vI to grow (intr),
to grow up
eneye vI to flay, to slaughter,
to butcher
engeece vI to fight
engele vI to unite (intr),
to come together
enkeexede vI to do not admit own guilt,
to do not bow to the facts
enzeewere vI to promenade,
to walk (for refreshment,
for fun, etc.), to wander about
eqheese vI to measure the lenght of sth
eqheeweme vI to oppose, to rebel
eray nm fat
erde vI to run
ereeqhebe vI to control, to supervise
erekkaso nm the day before yesterday
eremmax nm the day before yesterday
Eretriya nf Eritrea
erhedhdho1 nm preamble, introduction
erhedhdho2 num first
erheerhe vI to become long,
to become tall
erherh nm the first, beginning rel to
erhedhdho1, erhedhdho2, erherha,
erherhe, erherhishe, erherhishnan; !
erherh-tiya see the separate entry
erherha nf extremity, tip pl erhorh
erherhe vII to begin, to start
erherhishnan nm starting, beginning
erherh-tiya num first from erherh
and tiya
erhxe vI to say
Erobba nf Europe
eseemexe vI to forgive
esgeeceze vI to transfer (tr)
esgeegelle vI to mix and stir,
to mix thoroughly together
esgelle vI to mix
eshshe vI to better, to improve,
to make progress to get better
eskeere vI to rent, to hire
eskette vI to gather, to collect (tr)
esseece vI to escape
essere vII to ask, to request
esserime vII to be held responsible,
to be asked for a proof as a witness
essero nf question
esxeedere vI to arrange (tr),
to put in order, to place,
to put in a safe place
esxesse vI to indicate, to point to,
to show, to signify, to inform
eterite vII to say a slogan,
to say a motto
etero nf slogan, motto
eththeecese vI to regret
eththeehere vI to purify oneself,
to wash oneself
etteelee vI to eat, to feed (intr)
ewce vI to go out
exeesebe vI 1. to think, to consider
2. to count (in the mind)
eybeereke vI to bless
eydeewe vI to medicate
eyfeere vI to breed (tr)
eylee vI 1. to lose 2. to eliminate
eylelee vI 1. to spend 2. to spoof
3. to mislead
eylelekke vI to mislead,
to cause to err
eymeece vI to repair, to mend,
to adjust, to organize
eymeezene vI to weigh,
to balance
eymenge vI to multiply
eymexeedere vI to administer
eynebe vI to cause to grow,
o adopt (a child), to respect
eyrheerhe vI to lengthen
eyseelexe vI to reconcile,
to facilitate
eyteelee vI to nourish, to feed (tr)
eytheehere vI 1. to purify,
to sterilize, to disinfect
2. to circumcise
eyweesebe vI to marry a person
of a different clan, to interbreeded
eyweesele vI to continue
ezceera nf species of tree(s)
‘Arrow poison tree,
Poison-arrow tree’ (Acokanthera schimperi)
ezcerto m (seed/fruit)
ezeekere vI to study




faadib nm brave
faahim nm intelligent (male)
faahima nf intelligent (female)
faajoli nf beans
faake vII to open (tr)
faanus nm lantern, lamp
faareena nm container used
for giving milk to children
faas nm hatchet, axe
faax nf disorder, disarray
faax-erhxe vIV intr to disperse
(intr), to scatter (intr),
to separate from
faayida nf income, profit, gain,
yield, advantage var fayda; ~
faayida-hina vIII to be useless,
faayida-le vIII to be useful cf kasbe,
maksab, nafaaca
faayida-hina see faayida
faayida-le see faayida
fabrikka nf factory
fadhdhitime vII to be necessary
fahaama nf understanding
fahme nm understanding
fakara nf boast
fakkarowe vII to boast
fakkite vII to open
fakkot nm opening
faknan nm opening
fakune nf turn, turning
falo nf boast
fan nm middle, center,
fanadde between, among;
fanah to, towards, until;
fanko through ~ fanti-bacla/fanti-tiya nm
mediator (male), fanti-baclä/fanti-tiyä
nf mediator (female)
fanadde see fan
fanah see fan
fanko see fan
fanthar thar nm wriggle
fanthar thar-erhxe vIV intr
to wriggle (intr)
fanti-ferat nf ring-finger
faqhiir nm poor man
faqhiira nf poor woman
faqhra nf paragraph
faraace vII to dig, to hoe
faraaceena nm hoer (male)
faraaceenä1 nf hoer (female)
faraaco nf diging, hoeing
faraaday nm judge
faras nm horse
fare vII to send
farfare nf capsicum, red pepper, chilli
farhe vII to want, to need
farhi nf desire, wish, will, need
farhiico nm nectar
farhnan nm will, being in need
farhshiishe vII to have smb sought,
to cause to look for
farhshishshä nf interesting/important/
useful thing m farhshishsha
farhshishsha nm interesting/
important/useful thing
farhurh nm a person with a
space between teeth
farhuurho nf space between teeth
fariiqh nm team
farketta nf fork
farnello nf cooking stove
farriime vII to send
farrimto nf message
farto nf message
fartottä nf messenger (female)
fartotta nm messenger (male)
farxe nm happiness, joy, felicity
fasle nm 1. class (of school)
2. class, category
fate vII to dig
fateena nf mattock, hoe
fathri-cid nm feast for the
end of the Ramadan (Id-al-fatr)
fatnan nm diging
fattasha nf check-point
faxam nm charcoal
faxe vII to boil (intr)
faxnan nm boiling
faxso nm boiled grain
fenqac nm 1. crack 2. ravine
fera nf finger ~ ferarle manka nf fork
, ferarti-lafa nf phalange
ferma nf signature
ferranto nm ring
fersim nm hyphen(s), line(s)
fertoh pt in particular, especially
fida nm repayment, refund,
giving back, restitution, substitution
fidaane nf wideness, width,
area (mat)
fidbe nm braveness, bravery,
fidda nf silver
fidina vIII to be wide, to be large
fiim nm sweep
fiinan nm sweeping
fiirishe vII to score a line,
to split open
fiitsa nf whistle (the sound),
fijjan nm coffee cup
filcite vII to group
filco nm group; ~
filcoh-gaxe vII to group
file vII to comb
fileena nm comb
filet nm difference, division,
filite vII to comb one’s hair,
to dress one’s hair
filla nm neck
finistira nf window
fiqhre nm poverty, poorness
firaash nm mattress
firde nm judgement
fire1 nf 1. seeds of the fruits
2. descendants (of a clan)
fire2 vII to fly
fireeno nm brake
firiirixe vII to fly
firiya vIII to be fertile
firnan nm fly, flight
fiska nf whistle
fittix nm 1. untieing, liberation
2. divorce
fiyak nf 1. empty 2. naked
fiye vII to sweep ; ~
fiita-tiyä nf road-sweeper,
street-cleaner (female) fiya-tiya
nm road-sweeper,street-cleaner (male)
fiyeena nm broom
folloxa nf spring (of water),
source, fountain
folo nf bread
foorhiye vII to whistle
foorhiyo nf whistle (the sound),
hiss rel to foorhiye
fooro nm rise, upward slope!
fooroh/forolle uphill
fooroh see fooro
footha nf loin-cloth
(for male or female)
fordishe vII to store
forolle see fooro
forxatentä nf funny person,
rollicking fellow (female)
forxatenta nm funny person,
rollicking fellow (male)
forxatite vII to be a funny person,
to be a rollicking fellow
fosfores nm phosphorus
foyya nf emptiness, nothing,
zero! foyyah free of charge,
without nothing), foyyak
1. empty, without 2. naked
foyyah see foyya
foyyak see foyya
foyyayshe vII to empty
Fugo nm God cf Rabbi, Yalla
fugto nf kiss
fugute vII to kiss
furda nf store
fursa nf transhumance
(seasonal moving of the livestock)
to the highland
furtä nf rat, mouse (female)
furta nm rat, mouse (male)
furuse vII to do the transhumance
(seasonal moving of the livestock)
to the highland
fuuf-erhxe vIV intr to blow
fuul nm 1. peanuts 2. meal with beans




gaab yoh isho! see gaab-erhxe
gaabbaa nf type of snake
gaab-erhxe vIV intr to delay (intr),
to wait, to stay tr gaab-ishe
to delay (tr), ~ gaab yoh isho!
pt thanks, thank you
gaabo nf type of pumpkin(s)/gourd(s)
gaafä nf 1. gap in teeth where
a tooth is missing 2. splinter
gaafa nm 1. toothless person (male)
2. splintering
gaafayti nf toothless person (female)
gaala nm camel(s)
gaalayarhiggil nm dragonfly
gaaz nm gas
gaba nf 1. hand 2. arm pl gabub ~
gaba oxoye vI 1. to surrender (intr)
2. to clasp the hand
gabalace vII to do fast, to hurry
(in a manual labour)
gabalacishe vII to warm one’
hands (in front of a fire)
gaballacna nf hurry (in the manual
labour) from gaba and lacna
gaban nm crime
gabbaace vII to repeat
gabbabbaace vII to be frequent
gabbabbaaceh see gabbabbaace
gabbabbac nm fequency
gabbac nm repetition, revision
gabbar nm 1. peasant(s)
2. a married person who has the right
to receive a parcel of land for
cultivating it
gabbuurhala nf type of lizard
gabo nm direction, towards!
gabolle towards
gabolle see gabo
gabto nm Dorcas gazelle
(Gazella dorcas)
gacaz nm transfer, removal,
moving, journey
gadana nm courtyard, farmyard
gadda nm wealth, richness
gaddaalë nf rich woman
gaddaale nm rich man
gaddaalite vII to become rich
gade nm wadi
gadigimam nm river-bank
gafafa nm gathering, picking up
gafan nm levee
gahre nf unawareness, surprise
gahrite vII to be unaware
galac nm species of shrub(s)
‘Apple of Sodom, Dead Sea
fruit, Dead Sea apple’
(Calotropis procera)
galadda nm wooden plate
for the ‘dagxa’
galba nf cave
gale1 nm inferiority, low place,
inferior part, underneath
gale2 nm wing pl galil m ~
gali-dagar nm feather
gale3 nm womb, lap
gallaaba nf lorry, truck
gallacishe vII to make feel cold
gallacite vII to feel cold
gallaco nf coldness (climate)
galle nm 1. rest, the others
2. companions, colleagues
galooda nf knife
gamad nm lid
gamal nf pole, beam,
support (for the ‘naxsa’)
gamaro nf species of acacia(s)
(Acacia orfota = Acacia nubica)
game vII to descend, to slope down
gamid nm piece(s) of cloth
gamnan nm overturning
gamo nm unawareness, surprise!
gamooko suddenly
gamooko see gamo
ganga nf twins
ganna nf cold season in the
gantah pt also, even
gar nm blood money (money paid
in compensation to the family
of someone who has been killed
garaa nm meeting
garab nm forest
garace vII to steal, to rob
garaye1 nm communication,
garaye2 vII to meet (in the way),
to meet (for discussion)
garbä nf belly, stomach
garba nm 1. surface 2. page
garca nf steal
garceenä nf thief (female)
garceena nm thief (male)
gargeere vII to save, to rescue,
to aid
gargeereenä nf saviour/savior,
helper (female)
gargeereena nm saviour/savior,
helper (male)
garger nm salvation, aid, rescue
garo ind some, part
garsa nm species of shrub(s)
(Dobera glabra)
garube nm curd
garuuzinna nf slavery
garuz nm slave(s)
gashsha nf horn
gawwux nm jackal(s)
gaxe vII 1. to return to, to turn (intr)
2. to get into a place, to enter
gaxnan nm turning, coming back,
gaxoyta nm turn, turning
gaxtoytä nf inferior/subordinate
person (female)
gaxtoyta nm inferior/subordinate
person (male)
gaybe nm jar
gaza nm face
gazagazah pt in particular,
gazzaara nm butcher
gedda pt when, if
gedeefo nm murder, assassination,
gedeme vII to be sterile
gedmë nf sterile woman
gedme nm sterile man
geerä nf tail
geera nm loin
geeso nf species of shrub(s) or
small tree(s), buckthorn
(Rhamnus prinoides,
R. staddo)
ger nm low place, inferior part,
gereeco nm cutting
gerena nm species of fig tree(s)
(Ficus thonningii)
gerha nm stranger(s), guest(s)
gerhe vII to walk, to travel
gerho nf walk, excursion, journey, trip
gerwaana nf box, big tin, big can
geye vII 1. to find, to get
2. to obtain, to retrieve
3. to discover 4. to face
geyinnan see geye
geytimnan nm communication
geyto ! geyinnan every, all
geyto nf 1. finding, discovery
2. richness 3. table of contents,
index, content
gibre nm bill, tax, rate
gica nf fighting, violence, roughness
giczim nm sausage
gidaacish nm chickenpox
gidac nm dung, soft manure
gidcat nm problem, trouble
rel to gidcatishe, gidcatite
gidcatite vII to be in trouble,
to have problems
gide nf due, one’s due ~
gidet-xaznan nm slice, portion
gidfan nm murdering, killing
gidfo nm murder, assassination,
gidgido nf partition wall
(of traditional houses)
gidlo nm breaking
giifo nf gradient, uphill
giije nf death
giilal nm harvest’s season
giirise vII to swim
gile nm thumb, toe
gili nm gill
gilite vII to scatter (intr),
to escape
gilix nm fear, cowardice,
cowardliness ~ gilix-le vIII to
be coward, to be frightened
gilixe vII to become very frightened
gilix-le see gilix
gilxishe vII to make frightened
gimam nm 1. shore 2. edge
gimbot nf May
gina nm colour, appearance
Gindac nm (city of) Ghinda
gine vII to build, to make, to produce
gira nf fire
girco nm cutting
gis! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to dogs)
giz-at nm colony, colonialism
goble nf type of snake
godobo nm foreigner(s), tourist(s)
gol! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to rams)
golö nf gorge
golo nm curtain
gombö nf tuft (of hair), tuft
gombo nm boy
gombod nm ashes
gomma nf 1. tire/tyre(s)
2. plastic, rubber
gommoyishnan nm fertilization
gommoyshe vII to fertilize
gomod nm kind of stick
gomoo nm excrement (of animal),
fertilizer, manure
gomorh nm 1. stump
2. bottom, extremity
gonfoyshe vII to wound
by crushing the foot
gonfoyte vII to be wounded
by crushing the foot
gonna nm 1. den, lair, burrow
2. blind person
goobay nf tortoise
goobe nm shield
goomadhdhe nf 1. storm,
tempest 2. wave
goorare nf pharynx
goorishe vII to accompany
gooriya nf ostrich(es)
gooxo nf women’s room in
the ‘naxsa’, fireplace in the
women’s room
gor nm escort, companion
gorax nm shrewd person
goron nm searching, seeking,
looking for
goronishe vII to look for,
to search
gorxe nm shrewdness
goshshe nm thinning
out (seedlings)
goson nm cold (illness)
gozomo nf machete, adze
guba nm bottom, low place,
inferior part, underneath
gubal-erhxe vIV intr to
descend, to go down
gubnä nf widow
gubna nm widower
gubul nm lung(s)
gucur nm chock(s), wedge(s)
(of stone)
gudac nm joke
guddä nf 1. hump, hunch
2. plateau
gudda nm hunchbacked (male)
guddayti nf hunchbacked (female)
guddus nm completion of a task
consignment, delivery
gudduuse vII to complete a
task, to reach, to arrive at destination, to deliver
gufaa nm young unmarried man
gufe vII 1. to arrive, to reach
2. to visit 3. to mature
gufnan nm 1. arrival 2. visit
3. maturity
guftaane nf visit (after the funeral)
gullushsha nf support for pot
gulub nm knee pl guluuba ~
gulubuh-gaxe vII to kneel
gululluube vII to kneel
gumaare nm hippopotamus(es)
gumfuuse vII to wound by
crushing the foot
gumfuute vII to be wounded
by crushing the foot
gummaade nf fist
gumnä nf widow
gumna nm widower
gunde nm log, trunk
(of tree), stem
gurä nf left hand
gura1 nm left (side)
gura2 nm left-handed (male)
gurayti nf left-handed (female)
gure vII to want, to need
gurguma nf trachea
gurnan nm will, being in need
gurungurit nm goitre/goiter
guula nf hessian blanket
used by women
guuma nf type of large bird(s)
of prey (?Gyps rüppellii)
guz guz nm protection for
the shoulder when something
is carring
guzze nm fraction, part,
portion (of meat)




haasawa nf conversation, chat
haasawe vII to converse, to discuss
haboobal nm dust storm, whirlwind
habub nm big male baboon(s)
hadaana nm hunter
hadane1 nm hunting
hadane2 vII 1. to hunt
2. to send away
haddiige vII to send
haffa nf vapour, steam,
hal! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to camels)
haleele vII to reach and to pick up
hambereere vII to covet, to aspire
hambereero nm coveting, ambition
hamme nm shrewdness,
intelligence, wisdom
hammishe vII to reason
hammite vII to be concentrated
hanza nf kind of bread
harem nm pyramid
harra nm breath
harrishe vII to breathe
harrishnan nm respiration
harur nm 1. heat, hotness
2. thirsty
harurute vII 1. to feel hot
2. to be thirsty
hawaa nf atmosphere, air
haw-erhxe vIV intr to go
away tr haw-ishe to take away, to remove
hay! pt ‘Get moving!’
haye vII to put, to put on
hayya! pt ‘Come on!’, ‘Let’s go!’
hebela ind someone, so-and-so
heeliyo nm walking around,
roaming about, rotation
hekela ind someone, so-and-so
hel-erhxe vIV intr to walk,
to move, to wander about
hido pt or
higgida vIII to seem to be, to be like
hin! pt ‘Take it! There! Here you are!’
hina vIII to be without, not to be!
hinnim without
hinnim see hina
hirgiime vII to be attracted,
to be pulled
hirgo nf pulling, gravity, attraction
hiriige vII to pull, to drag (along)
his! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to kids)
hodom nm big or deep hole, cavity
hoori nf canoe
horora nm den, lair, burrow
horra nf type of dance,
accompanied by singing,
executed by men at a wedding
horrishe vII to execute the ‘horra’
hujuum nm attack, assalt,
raid, offensive, strike
huruf nm greedy, vulture (person)




iba nm foot, leg ~ ibi-cara nf foot
ibal pt so
ibalace vII to hurry (in walking),
to step out
iballacna nf hurry (in walking)
from iba and lacna
ibbirhe vI 1. to hold, to keep,
to arrest, to catch 2. to receive (intr)
~ yol mabbarhin I’m sorry! forgive me!
ibhige vI to be happy, to be glad,
to be joyful
ibiddile vI to change
ibissire vI to announce good news
ibittine vI to spread
ibkhile vI to be stingy
ibra nf needle pl ibor ~ ibra mude
vII to inject
ibrayshe vII to relay, to relieve,
to spell (to release smb from duty
by taking their place)
ibre nm turn, shift
ibrhiye vI to separate, to isolate
ibrike vI to kneel (of camel),
to settle down
icbide vI to be mad, to be crazy
icdire vI to be discouraged,
to be demoralized
icikkine vI to try, to test,
to tempt
icimmize vI to damage,
to hurt
icizzibe vI to cause to suffer
, to make difficult for,
to waste smb’s time, to punish in hell
icizzime vI to invite
iclishe vI to become heavy
icrhiye vI to deviate
ictite vI 1. to become sour
2. to curdle
idbile vI 1. to be disrespectful,
to be irreverent 2. to be rash
iddirire vI to eat supper/dinner
idhdha ind manner, quantity,
amount! idhdhah instead of,
substitute of
idhdhite vII to spy
idhdhiteenä nf spy, explorer (female)
idhdhiteena nm spy, explorer (male)
idhdho nf espionage
ifaaf nm opening, doorway
ifaare vII 1. to go out to work
(in the field, in the bush, etc.)
2. to undertake an expedition
ifanih pt early, soon, urgently
ifayto nm container for yoghurt
and milk
ifdibe vI to brave, to be coraugeous
ifdiye vI to repay a debt,
to give back,
to substitute
ife vII to give light, to illuminate
to shine
ifee nm opening, doorway
iffoyshe vII to light (a lamp),
to switch on (a light)
ifhime vI to understand
ifiddine vI to become wide
ifinfine vI to be repulsive
to sth or to smb
ifishe vII to light (a lamp),
to switch on (a light)
ifittishe vI to inspect,
to investigate
ifo nm light rel to ife ~
ifo-le vIII to be bright,
to be brilliant
ifqire vI to become poor
ifride vI to judge
ifrime vI to sign
ifrixe vI to be happy, to enjoy
ifriye vI to reproduce (intr)
iftixe vI 1. to untie, to free,
to undo 2. to divorce
igdife vI to kill
igdile vI to break
iggida nm year
igiilite vII to swim
igiilo nm swim, swimming
igil nm lake
igirh nm scorpion
igizzire vI to slaughter,
to butcher
igraabo nf species of tree(s)
(Boscia salicifolia)
igribe vI 1. to freeze, to congea
l 2. to coagulate
igrice vI 1. to cut, to divide,
to saw 2. to cross
igziye vI 1. to rule over,
to dominate, to colonize
2. to punish (animal)
ihjime vI to attack, to assalt
i-iwwije vI to declare
ijaaza nf vacation
ikbire vI 1. to be glorified
2. to be expensive
ikfile vI to pay
ikhzine vI to store
ikkitiye vI 1. to knot 2. to be ready
iklibe vI to bend (tr), to bend again
, to fold, to turn over
iklithe vI to wrong, to make a
ikmile vI to be completed,
to be concluded
iko nf tooth ~ ikot-cayne/ikot-masxe
nm decayed tooth
ikshife vI 1. to spy, to control
2. to examine medically
iksibe vI to make a profit, to gain
iksise vI to accuse, to charge
ikxine vI to like, to desire,
to fall in love
ilaace vII to despise
ilaale vII to wait
ilac nm despising, contempt,
scorning, disdain
ilal nm waiting
ilaw nm grain, corn, cereal(s)
iliishe vII to engage for marriage,
to betroth
ilike vI to send, to send messages
ililite vII to stutter, to stammer
ilillige vI 1. to become sharp
2. to become keen (of things and person),
to become perspicacious
ililo nf stuttering, stutter, stammering,
stammer ~ ililo-le vIII to be dumb,
to be stutterer, to be stammerer
ililo-le see ililo
ilimmitse vI to paint (walls)
iliqhliqhe vI to paint (walls)
iliyas nm fifth brew of coffee
illa nf 1. natural spring
2. soreness due to the rubbing of
a pack/rope (of animals)
illiishe vII to get/to become
engaged (of men)
illikkixe vI to borrow
ilo nf stick
imaan nm faith, belief
imbissire vI 1. to be blind
2. to receive good news
imcizzibe vI to suffer
imfice vI to be useful to
imfiddige vI 1. to be stretched

2. to be expanded
imfilliye vI to be separated,
to be isolated
imfiye vI to sift
imirrishe vI to march
imishshithe vI to comb
imjillide vI to be covered
(of a book/an exercise-book)
imjinnine vI to be possessed
by an evil spirit
imliishe vII to get/to become
engaged (of women)
imlike vI to win
immingide vI to look like, to seem
immirrixe vI to be guided, to led
immissile vI to look like, to seem
imsinniqhe vI to be strangled/choked
imtixaan nm examination, test, trial
imtixine vI to examine, to test
imxibbishe vI to be in prison

ina nf mother ~ inat-agle f
step-brothers of a step-mother
inaarico nf type of spider
inamalë nf orphan (motherlees)
inamale nm orphan (motherlees)
incibe vI to hate, to be angry with,
to dislike
indaakiyo nf millipede
indacaaro nm species of fig tree(s)
(Ficus vasta)
indime vI to be sad, to be worry
about, to regret
indirkuxula nm species of tree(s),
‘Carrot tree’ (Steganotaenia araliacea)
ine vI to be (present), to exist,
to survive
ingide vI to trade
Ingiliiz nm England, English
ingo nf grandmother ~ ingot-ina nf
inik num one ~ inikan kee taman
num eleven, inki-cayna nf uniform thing
injiil nm Gospel
inketta pr single, one
inkettak see inketta
inkettiino nf union
inkidde see inki
inkim see inik
inki-waqhte pt at the same time,
inkoh ind all, entirely, as a whole,
inne pr ref myself
inni pos ref my own
inqac nm louse(s)
inqirribe vI to be prepared, to be ready
inqissibe vI to be obliged, to be forced
inqiyyire vI to be changed, to be shifted
insire vI to win
insixe vI to advise, to counsel
inthaathic nm flax
inti nf eye ~ intit-kabaro nf eyelid,
intit-qinrib/intit-sifo nm eyelash,
inti waye vII to be blind
intile nf net, fishnet
intimalë nf blind woman
intimale nm blind man
intsige vI to repel, to refuse,
to reject
intsiqhe vI to splash
iqhdibe vI to be sad
iqhirrire vI to decide
iqhishshishe vI to delude, to spoof
iqhiyyide vI to tie the legs to
prevent movement (of animals)
iqhliim nf region, zone
iqhliye vI to be expensive
iqhriye vI to read, to learn
iqhtisaad nm economy
iqhtsice vI to punish
irgide vI to dance (traditional)
Irhaafalo nm (village of) Irafale
irhga nf knowledge
irhibbishe vI 1. to stick, to join
2. to squat, to crouch
irhiggile vI to milk
irhxine vI to grind
irkibe vI to catch up with
iro nf 1. outside 2. excrement,
faeces (of human)! Irolle outside
~ irot-tiya nm foreigner,
tourist (male)
irolle see iro
irqiqhe vI 1. to become thin
2. to become light (of food),
to become delicate (of food)
irro nm children
isbire vI to be patient, to endure,
to withstand
iscibide vI to drive mad
iscilishe vI to weigh down,
to make difficult
iscillime vI to teach, to train
iscimire vI to develop
iscire vI to defeat
isfire vI to camp
ishaara nf indication (sign, mark),
ishaarishe vII to mark, to sign,
to indicate
ishe1 vII to make, to do
ishe3 pr ref yourself, himself, herself
ishhide vI to witness, to testify
ishi1 pos ref your own, his own, her own
ishi2 pr she
ishiqqithe vI to trade, to do business
ishrixe vI to explain, to demonstrate
isiile vI to draw, to take picture, to illustrate
isimmire vI to nail
isirrite vI to establish, to found
Isiya nf Asia
iskibire vI 1. to glorify, to honour,
to respect, to celebrate
2. to make expensive,
to increase the price
iskimile vI to complete
iskire vI to get drunk,
to intoxicate (oneself)
iskiyyide vI to thresh/thrash
(with animals)
islixe vI to be godly/pious/mercy
isnibe vI to latch, to bolt
isniqhe vI tr to strangle, to choke (tr)
isqiriye vI to teach
isqirribe vI to prepare
isqithe vI to press, to crush
isqiyyire vI to change, to shift (tr)
isriye vI to become strong
issifiddige vI 1. to stretch oneself
2. to expand (intr)
issilliye vI to pray
istaaz nm teacher (male)
istaaza nf teacher (female)
istibra nf washing of genitals
isticmaar nm ruling over, domination,
colony, colonialism
isticmire vI to rule over,
to dominate, to colonize
istilaam nm surrending
istilime vI to surrender
istintine vI to remember (intr)
istishhaad nm martyrdom
istishhide vI to be a martyr
isxibbire vI to indicate, to point to,
to show, to signify, to inform
isxibire vI to complete, to finish
isxiqhiqhe vI to dissolve
isxiriqhe vI 1. to make angry,
to irritate 2. to sink imp asxiriqhe
isxirrike vI to move (tr)
itbirrice vI to gift, to donate,
to contribute, to grant
itcibbire vI to surprise, to amaze
itcibe vI 1. to suffer
2. to be bothered, to be tired
itcijjibe vI to surprise, to amaze
itcillime vI to learn
ithbice vI to print
ithhire vI to be clean
ithimmite vI to check, to verify
ithinqiqhe vI to pay attention
ithirrife vI to pack, to put together
ithlime vI to abandon,
to desert, to forsake (tr), to neglect
ithmice vI to be stingy
ithrice vI to complain,
to claim
iththiwwire vI to develope (oneself)
itkibbire vI to be proud, to be arrogant
itkile vI 1. to plant 2. to found (a house)
Itobbiya nf Ethiopia
itre nm morning (about from 9 to 11)
itrire vI to be strong, to be hard
itsqitsice vI imp atsqitsice
itsriye vI to be clean, to be tidy
itstsibbire vI to wait
itsxiye vI to weed
itticikkine vI to be sorely tried
ittiminniye vI to desire, to wish,
to hope to have
itxirrike vI to move (intr)
iwilwile vI to polish
iwrishe vI to inherit
ixbire vI to be completed,
to be concluded
ixbishe vI to put in prison,
to imprison
ixfize vI 1. to study
2. to take care of
ixiddide vI to decide
ixiggire vI to program, to plan
ixinkishe vI to limp
ixkise vI to compensate,
to indemnify
ixlike vI to fetter
(cows or goats when milking)
ixqiqhe vI to be dissolved
ixriqhe vI 1. to be angry
2. to be sunk
ixtifaal nm celebration,
ixtifile vI to celebrate
, to commemorate
ixtime vI to print
ixzine vI to mourn (over a dead)
, to sorrow, to grieve, to be sad
iybiddile vI to exchange, to barter
iybirkite vI to economize,
to save (money)
iyfiddige vI 1. to stretch (tr),
to cause to stretch
2. to expand (tr)
iyfiddine vI to widen,
to spread out
iyfidibe vI to encourage
iyfiliye vI to separate
, to divide
iyfirixe vI to make happy,
to make glad
iyfiriye vI to bear fruits
iyfissire vI to translate,
to interpret
iyjillide vI to cover
(a book, an exercise-book)
iyjinnine vI to drive mad
iylikkixe vI to lend
iymirixe vI to guide, to lead
iymissile vI to imitate
iyniddife vI to clean
iyshidhdhige vI to inform,
to tell, to proclaim
iysihile vI to simplify,
to make easier, to make simpler
iysixixe vI to correct, to adjust
iythihire vI to clean
iythinqiqhe vII to warn
iythiwwire vI to make progress,
to develop
iyticibe vI 1. to cause to suffer
2. to bother, to tire
iytsiriye vI to clean, to tidy
iywiddixe vI to make sth clear,
to clarify
iyya int who?
iyyir nm bullet(s)
iyzikkire vI to cause to remember
, to remind
izbite vI to thresh/thrash (by hand)
izhire vI to appear, to be visible,
to be cleared up, to become clear
izikkire vI to remember (tr)
iziwwire vI to drive
izne nm permission, authorization
izzikkire vI to remember (intr)




jaamica nf university
jaasus nm informer(s),
delator(s), spy(-ies)
jabana nf coffee pot
jabdä nf madness, craziness
jabda nm madman
jabdayti nf madwoman
jabdiite vII to be mad,
to be crazy
jaha nf direction, position
jahaara nm incisor tooth
jahannab nm hell
jakket nf jacket
jalba nf canoe, boat
jamaaca nf group
jambil nf basket
jamhuuriya nf republic
janna nf heaven, paradise
jarda nf sword
jardiin nm garden
jariida nf newspaper
jaw nm weather
jawaab nf letter
jaza nf reward, retribution
jaziira nf island, isle
Jibuuti nf Djibouti
jihle nm ignorance
jiib nm pocket
jilde nm dust cover,
dust jacket (of a book,
of an exercise-book)
jograaf nm geography
jubba nf jacket
jumcat nm Friday
junuub nm south
junuun nm jinn, demons,




kaa1 pos his
kaa2 pr (short non-subject
form) him
kaafa nm today
kaako nf earwax
kaakooma nm hirax
(Hirax abessinicus)
kaakot nm crow(s), raven(s)
kaamana nm this year
kaamil nm whole, full
kaarishe vII to snore
kaaro nf snoring, snore
kaateena nf chain
kaatim nm ring
kabaro nf drum
kabbaani nm creeping
kabbaaniinan nm creeping
kabbaaniye vII to creep,
to crawl
kabbaate vII to give hospitality,
to invitate, to receive (tr)
kabbaateenä nf 1. hostess
2. waitress
kabbaateena nm 1. host (male)
2. waiter
kabbaatime vII to be accepted,
to be received
kabbatnan nm giving hospitality,
inviting, receiving
kabbot nf overcoat
kabbud nm rib(s)
kabella nf shoe
kabenta nf approach
kab-erhxe vIV intr to approach
(intr), to come near
kabu!!i nf savoy cabbage(s)
kadaama nf work, activity
kado pt now ~ kado dhagan/kado
fanah pt till now, until now, still
kafe vII to become dry
kafina vIII to be dry, to be solid
kafishe vII to dry
kafna nf dryness, drought
kafule nm paying, payment
kahraba nf electricity
kalale vII to save, to rescue,
to aid
kalaleenä nf saver, saviour/
savior (female)
kalaleena nm saver, saviour
/savior (male)
kalath nm mistake
kale vII 1. to take away,
to remove, to cut off
2. to sweep (the cowshed
or sheepfold) 3. to stay
kalima nf word
kalite vII to disallow, to refuse
kalitnan nm refusal (to give)
kalla nf clay, mud, swamp
kallaal nm big ear-ring
kallaaxe1 nm journey, travel,
trip, tour, voyage, excursion
kallaaxe2 vII to travel
kalxa nm former time(s), precedence,
‘in the beginning’, ‘once upon a time’
kamboh pt almost
kamus nm 1. buttocks 2. thigh
kamuse nf crouching (down)
kanziir nm pig(s)
Karan nm (city of) Keren
karë nm bitch (of dog)
kare nm dog
karfas nm rope with iron’s rings used
to join the beam of a plough
to the ploughshare and the coulter
karhib nm container used to
do the butter, churn
karhkadhdhe nf cranium, skull
karima nf organ
karma nf rainy season
(in the highland)
karmaz nf species of tree(s)
(Boscia angustifolia)
karrossa nf cart
karrot nm carrot(s)
karta nf map
kas nm shrewdness, intelligence,
wisdom ~ kas-le vIII to be wise
kasbe nm profit, gain
kashfe nm 1. medical examination
2. spying \
kas-le see kas
kaso nm evening
kassowe vII to spend the evening
kataaba nf writing
katama nf town, city
katattaye vII to be frequent
katattayshe vII to continue
kataye vII to follow
kataynan nm following
kattaab nm writer (male)
kattaabä nf writer (female)
kawlo nm cabbage(s)
kawlofiyoori nf cauliflower(s)
kaxano nm love
kaxda nm disallowing one’s guilt,
not bowing to the facts
kaxsa nf reparation, compensation
kay nf 1. fence 2. brackets
kayde nm threshing (with animals)
kayya pr (long non-subject form) him
kayzaraan nf kind of stick,
walking-stick, cane khayzaraan
kazzik pt till, until, still
kee pt and
keena nf thorn, prickly
kele vII to distribute
keleenä nf distributor (female)
keleena nm distributor (male)
kelo nf distribution
kibad nm sheath
kibah pp except, but for
kibra nf glory, honour, respect
kibriya nf arrogance, proudness
kidkidda nm species of tree(s)
(Dodonea angustifolia)
kiilo nf kilo; ~ kiilo giram nf
kiis nf sack
kilbo nm bending
kilim nm type of tick(s) (insect)
kimbiro nf bird(s) ~ kimbirti-care
nm nest
kinni vIII to be
kir! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to lambs)
kiraa nf rent, hire
kirbit nf match
kirda nf bracelet
kishbo nf circumcision
kisho nf tribe, paternal clan, people
kishtan nm christian(s)
kisse nm accusation, charge
kitaab nm book
kitaabet nf vaccination ~
kitaabet abe vII to vaccinate
kitfo nf cutting (of meat)
kitife vII to cut (meat)
kitiya nf 1. knot 2. readiness
kixina vIII to love, to like, to prefer
koba nm a thousand (of animals)
kobbaaya nm cup
kobborta nf blanket
kodhdhä nf curving, curvature,
kodhdha nm curve, crook
(used for people and things) (male)
kodhdhishe vII to bend (tr),
to curve
kodhdhite vII to bend (intr)
kombolboole vII to roll (tr),
to tumble (tr)
kombolboolishe vII to roll
over and over
kombolboolite vII to roll (intr)
komodooro nf tomato(es)
kondhorh nm boil(s) (of the skin)
kontom num fifty
koofiyat nf ornament for wife’s head
kooma nf 1. Mountain
2. comma
koon num five ~ koonan
kee taman fifteen
koorarat nf bottle
kor nm saddle
kordan nm backbone,
vertebral column
kore vII to climb, to mount
korim nm climbing
korma nf hump (of animals)
kormaaj nm whip
kornan nm climbing
kotta pr (long non-subject
form) you (s)
kowa pr (long non-subject
form) you (s)
koye! pt ‘Hey!’ (said to a man)
koyya pr (long non-subject
form) you (s)
ku1 pos your
ku2 pr you (s, short non-subject
kucusso nf ball
kuda nm escape
kudaar nm greens, vegetable(s)
kudduume vII to jump
kude vII to escape, to flee,
to run away, to exile imp kuda
kudnan nm escape
kudo nf waterfall
kuduudul nm pigeon(s)
kuduudulle nf dove(s)
kullum nm tadpole(s)
kulluxseena nm cricket
kulqa nf nature, creation
kulse nm fat
kulteena nf evil eye
kulux nm glance, look
kulux-erhxe vIV intr to look
kulxunta nf 1. anklebone
2. ankle
kumal nm yesterday
kumma nm vagina
kummusa nf loin-cloth
kumre nm stack, heap (as of hay)
Kunaama nm Kunama
kuntaal nm quintal,
hundred kilograms
kuntur nm muscle(s)
kura nf rage, fit of anger
kurbe nm species of tree(s)
(Commiphora africana,
C. erythraea)
kurkur nm 1. small round object
2. puppy (of dog)
kurraye vII to quarrel, to get angry
kurraynä nf angry person (female)
kurrayna nm angry person (male)
kurraynan nm getting angry
kurru nf container for milking or
for drinking milk
kurse nf chair
kusura nm jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi)
kut! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to hens)
kutuub nm script, writing
kuwa nf termitehill(s)
kuxkuxti nf whooping-cough
kuxul nm antimony (for cosmetics)
kuxulla nm blue (color)
kuxullayina vIII to be blue, to be light/
pale blue (like the color of the sky)
kuxullayite vII to become blue
kuxullayno nm blueness




laa nm cattle
laabud pt maybe
laadä nf lamb (female)
laada nm lamb (male)
laakin pt but
laale nf traditional song
laama nm razor-blade
laana nf 1. head 2. small hill
laatayloole nf swift (bird)
laatseenä nf new-born (female),
laatseena nm new-born (male),
laazeena nm porcupine,
laazim pt of course, necessarily,
lab def male, masculine (gender)
labcaade vII to practise, to adapt (intr),
to become accustomed to, to learn
labcaadim nm common, usual
labcaadime vII to be known
labcaadish nm exercise
labcaadishe vII to cause to adapt,
to teach
labcad nm exercise, adaptation,
labha nm man, men ~ labha ekke vI
to become heroic
labhattiino nf heroism
labka nf scapula
labkite vII to mate, to copulate
(of small stock)
labko nf mating of small stock
animals (goats and sheep)
lacane nm large bird of prey,
‘White-headed vulture’
lacat nm handle
lace vII to become hot, to
feel hot
lacina vIII to be hot
lacishe vII to heat
lacna nf 1. hotness 2. fever
lafa nf bone pl lafof/lafuf
lak nm leg pl lakuk m ~ lakti-addaacasa
nf sole (of the foot), lakti-gile nm
big toe
lakalle pt after, afterwards, later,
then ~ lakalle gaxe vII to retreat,
to come back
lakkaatit nf February
lalace vII to bask (before the fire)
lalco nf basking (by the fire)
lalim nm egg(s)
laluc nm species of tree(s)
(Mimusops kummel)
lamaatanna num twenty ~
lamaatannaa kee inik twenty-one
lamba nf kerosene
lambadiina nf bulb, torch,
lamma num two! lammaak/lammuk both
~ lamman kee taman twelve
lammaak see lamma
lammafle nf type of snake
lammagale pt around from lamma
and gale
lammuk see lamma
laqhco nf ear-ring
lashshab nf bat
lath nm lowering
lath-erhxe vIV intr to stoop, to descend,
to go down
lax nf she-goat
laxat nm cowrie(s) ~ laxat-maataka
see the separate entry
laxat-maataka nf magician,
laxsuuse vII to cause to be sick,
to cause to suffer
laxsuusute vII to pain, to suffer
laxtam num sixty
laxus nm pain, ache
laxuu nm illness, sickness
laxuute vII to be sick, to be ill
laxuuteenä nf ill/sick person
laxuuteena nm ill/sick person
lay nf water ~ layti-ala nf waterbird
(like gooses, ducks, etc.)
lazza nf nutritive/nutritious thing
leddelle pt after, afterwards, later,
then ~ leddelle gaxe vII to retreat,
to come back
leemä nf lamb (female)
leema nm lamb (male)
leemun nm lemon(s)
leeza nf patch
leeze vII to patch
leeziyo nf shaving
lel pt also, even
lellec nm day, date ~
lellectabrha nf midday
lem1 see leya
lem2 pt equivalent, equal, the same
lexeeta nm small rainy season
(in the highland)
leya vIII to have, malih without ~
lem that has from le
lice nm temperature
lifeena nm comb
liffac nm 1. crack 2. ravine
lific nm fingernail, claw
liggidina nf week
liif nm strainer for ‘jabana’
liimom nm slaver, slobber
liisho nf engagment
liishottä nf fiancée
liishotta nm fiancé
likax nm loan ~ likax-bacla/
likax wanna nm debtor (male)
, likax-baclä/likax wannä nf
debtor (female)
lillaage nf 1. sharpness
2. keenness (of things and people), perspicacity
lilliga vIII 1. to be sharp
2. to be keen (of things and person),
to be perspicacious ~ lillig-ishaara nf arrow
limo nf cost, price
lix num six ~ lix ya num sixth,
lixan kee taman sixteen
liya nm loss
loo nm counting, mathematics
loomin nm lemon(s)
lowe vII to count
loynä nf shepherdess
loyna nm shepherd, herdsman
lubak nm lion
lubakto nf lioness
lugam nm bridle
luqhluqh nm painting (walls)
lushsha nm kneading
luuk nm message, messengers
luuktä nf messenger (female)
luukta nm messenger (male)
luul nm pearl
luumeena nm toothbrush
luumute vII to brush the teeth
luwa nf hunger
luwe vII to be hungry
lux nm small plank (board)




maabako nf origin
maabbo nf 1. hearing, sens of hearing
2. sense
maacata nf place where one steps on
maach! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to mules)
maadda nf lesson, subject, matter, article
maaddi nm meal
maade vII to reach, to arrive at destination
maadishe vII to deliver
maadnan nm reaching, arriving at destination
maafa nf gill
maahiya nf wages, salary
maal nf money
maale pt no, not
maaman nm species of acacia(s)
‘Apple-ring acacia’ (Faidherbia
albida/Acacia albida)
maamanto m (seed/fruit)
maaqhaca nm handle
maarhan nf sister-in-law
(husband’s sister)
maataka nm pestle
maaxa nm the time before
the dawn, early morning
maaxe vII to dawn
maaziya nf April
mabaaro nf hoe(s)
mabbalowe vII to treat (intr),
to discuss, to negotiate
mabbarha nm handle
mablo nf 1. sight, view
2. discussion, opinion, suggestion
~ mablo zidhdhiime vII to suggest
mabrad nm file (tool), rasp
macaadin nm mineral(s)
macaani nf goodness, kindness,
righteousness ~ macaani-le
vIII to be good, to be kind, to be right
macaani-le see macaani
macaasha nf food rel to acaash ~
macaashat-amrar nm digestion
macaba nm beverage, drink
macaddana nf mine (deposit
of mineral)
macaga nm burial
macageena nm burier
macal nm care, case, matter,
interest ~ macal-male vIII
to be careless
macalmalë nf careless person
macalmale nm careless person
macal-male see macal
macalsiite vII to pay attention
to observe
macalso nf observation
macandha nf slave, servant
macara nm hiding-place
macaskar nm camp, encampment
macattak nm brother in-law
(husband’s brother)
macday nm kaki
machambara nf flute
mackan nf silo for storing grain
(inside the house, into a wall)
macna nf meaning, concept
macnad-ashishe vII to investe,
to exploit, to capitalize
macrafo nf place for resting
macraka nf war, battle, struggle
macrhayna nf side, place
where one deviates
macrub nm belt
macsab nm unmarried/widow
or divorced person
macwaz nf loin-cloth
maczeediye, make, sawale, sooke
maczeeziye vII to twist (tr)
maczit nf sickle
maczo nm door
madagdag nm little mortar
for coffee
madagdagnaa nm pestle for
the ‘madagdag’
madamsas nm rubber, duster
maddara nm owner, master
maddaxa num third
madeera nf species of tree(s)
(Cordia africana, C. abyssinica)
madfan nm kind of trap
madfic nm cannon
madhdhaa nf tie
madiina nf town, city
madrasa nf school
mafarra num fourth
maffatata nf place for stretching
one’s legs
mafkano nf turn, turning
mafruuddö nf young female camel
(older than ‘narig’)
mafruuddo nm young male camel
(older than ‘narig’)
maftix nm key
magaaz nm saw
magannaxit nf mirror ~
magannaxit-care nm mirror case
magazzara nf abattoir, slaughterhouse
magdafa nm murderer
maggaabit nf March
magraco nf crossing
mahar nm goad (for the oxen)
majnana nf possession by an evil spirit
majnuun nm man possessed
by an evil spirit, madman
majnuuna nf woman possessed
by an evil spirit, madwoman
makaado nf room (for men) in
the ‘naxsa’, fireplace in the men’s room
~ makaadot-caraf nm house’s
door (for men)
makaano nf place, area, space,
makammasa nf the place where
one is crouching (down)
makana nf typewriter
makare vII to surround




naakitto nf ending, final! naakittolle
eventually, finally ~ naakitto hintiya
nm infinity, infinite, endless
naakittolle see naakitto
naakitto-male see naakitto
naakuda nm sailor
Naara nf Nara
naaz nm type of insect(s) ‘Grain weevil’
naba vIII to be big, to be great rel
to enebe, eynebe, manabotta, nabinta,
nabne ~ naba abo nm great-grandfather,
naba caraf nm house’s door (for men),
naba cumre nm ageing, naba ingo nf
great-grandmother, naba sambat nm
Sunday, nabaaferat nf middle finger
from naba and fera
nabara nm group leader(s)
(less authoritative than ‘reezanto’),
minister(s) (of government)
nabbaade vII to be disgusted
nabii nm prophet
nabinta nf greatness, bigness, growth
nabne nf greatness, bigness, growth
nabra1 nf daily activity
nabra2 nf surviving
nabse nm 1. body 2. self pl nabsit;
~ nabsi-wanna nm murderer
nabul nm she-camel which has
given birth
nacabo nm hate, hatred, hostility,
nacabtoole nm hated person,
nacta nm pelt for wedding day
nada nf dew
nadaama nf horrible, terrifying
nadam nm horrible, terrifying
nadama nf sadness, worry, regret
nafaaca nf usefulness, utility,
advantage, benefit ~ nafaaca-le
vIII to be useful
nafaaca-le see nafaaca
Nafaasit nf (city of) Nefasit
nafta nf diesel oil, naphtha
naga nm good, well, peace
(used also as greeting)
nagaadtanin nm dialogue from
nagaad ‘in peace and tanin ‘are you?
nagaaka nf greeting
nagbe nm reputation ~ nagbe-mece
vIII to be popular, to have a good
reputation, nagbi-wanna nm popular
person (male), nagbiwannä nf popular
person (female)
nagbe-mece see nagbe
nagda nm trade
naggowe vII to be saved
naggoyshe vII to save
nahaar nm river
nakak nm palate
nake vII to be tanned
nakishe vII to tan
nakishnan nm tanning
nakoo nm vegetable substance
used to tan
nakoobalasa nf castorbean(s),
castor-oil tree(s) (Ricinus communis)
naksi nf underpants, briefs
nangalö nf cousin (female)
nangalo nm cousin (male)
nanu pr we
naqhca nf dew
Naqhfa nf 1. (city of) Nakfa
2. nakfa (Eritrean unit of currency)
narig nm young camel
(younger than ‘mafruuddo’)
nasda nm bed in masonry
nashiid nf hymn, chorus
nasiixa nf advise
nasre nm victory, triumph
natsa nm free, neutral! natsah
free (without payment, without charge)
natsala nf shawl (for man)
naw-ishe vIV to take, to take away,
to move (tr), to shift (tr)
nawit nf beam (of the plough)
naxaasi nf August
naxar nm 1. chest 2. vomit m
~ naxar-hina vIII to be dumb,
to be stutterer, naxar waye vII
(cf ililo-le), naxar wayto nf dumbness
naxargaxnan nm vomiting from
naxar and gaxe
naxar-hina see naxar
naxarmalë nf dumb/stutterer
person (female)
naxarmale nm dumb/stutterer
person (male)
naxas nm 1. tin 2. tin-plate, can
naxsa nm kind of traditional house
nazaafa nf cleaness, tidiness, purity
nazzaara nf glasses, spectacles
ni1 pos our
ni2 pr (short non-subject form) us
nibro nm number
niciba vIII to hate, to dislike, to loathe
nif nm face
nifiyo nf measles
nigisti nf queen
nihug nm species of plant(s)
‘Niger seed, Rantil’ (Guizotia abyssinica)
ninne pr ref ourself
ninni pos ref our own
nircid nm gums
niya nf hope, wish ~ niya dhumuse
vII/niya igrice vI to be discouraged,
to be demoralized
niyaate vII to be happy
niyat nm 1. happiness 2. boast
nizaam nm system, rule
notta pr (long non-subject form) us
nowa pr (long non-subject form) us
noyya pr (long non-subject form) us
nugus nm king
nukur nm angle, corner
numa nf woman, wife
nuqhtha nf full stop (gram)
nuwaa nm furniture, goods




o-asis nm oasis
obboohose vI to be lazy
obsa nm 1. geographical location/position
2. saving (money)
obti nf going down
ogoofofe vI to gather, to pick up
okolo nm donkey(s), ass(es)
oloole vI to graze, to pasture
Ommaxajar nm (city of) Omhajer
ommoofowe vI to breathe with
ommookome vI to chase, to race
omroocode vI to be agitated,
o wriggle (intr), to gesticulate (intr),
to toss and turn, to toss about
oo dem that
oobbe vI to hear, to listen
oobe vII to go down
oobishe vII to lower, to put down,
to unload, to place
ooboke vI to be born
oocobe vI to drink
oocoge vI to bury
oocore vI to hide (tr)
oofowe vI to blow, to breathe
oogore vI to hit, to beat,
to strike
ookome vI to arrive first,
to arrive before, to precede,
to do before
oolac nm olive tree(s)
‘African wild olive’ (Olea africana,
Olea chrysophylla)
oolal nm species of euphorbia(s)
(Euphorbia abyssinica)
oome vI to become bad
ooqhoce vI to carry, to pick up,
to lift
oorofe vI to sew, to tailor
oosole vI to laugh
ootoke vI 1. to hit, to beat,
to strike 2. to knock 3. to shoot
oqqoomote vI to stare at
(smb or sth), to search, to seek,
to look for
orat nf crow, raven
orba1 nm visit made by bridegroom
to his bride during the
traditional wedding cerimony
orba2 nf 1. harvest 2. entering rel to
2. orbeena, orbishe, orobe
orbeena nf enter, entrance, introduction
ore vII to carve, to whittle
oreenä nf carpenter (female)
oreena nm carpenter (male)
ornan nm carving, whittling
orobe vII to enter
osa nf 1. addition, total
2. adjective (gram)
ose vII to add
Oshaaniya nf Oceania
osoome vI to fast
osqoome vI to fix (tr)
oton nm stove for baking bread
otoobe vI to repent (of)
ottobuus nf bus
oxoye vI to give




pappagaallo nm parrot
pippa nm pipe
piramid nm pyramid
piresidenti nm president
poliis nm police, policemen
pooliyo nf poliomyelitis/polio




qaali nm expensive thing
qaamuus nm dictionary,
qaana nf wall
qaanico nf mosquito(s)
qaanun nm law, rule, regulation
~ qaanun hintiya nm illegal, outlaw
qaanunko iro nm illegality,
qaanun-male vIII to be illegal,
to be outlaw
qaanun-male see qaanun
qaaqha nf species of shrub(s)
qaatsuwa nf young baboon(s)
qabic nm leopard(s)
qabiila nf tribe, clan, people
qabre nm grave
qaca nm common fly(-ies),
qacta nf trigger
qadaab nm sadness
qafo nf 1. beehive
2. small silo for storing grain
(inside the house, into a wall)
qalam nm pen
qalaminthoos nm eucalyptus
‘Long break eucalyptus,
Murray red gum, Red eucalyptus,
Sugar gum, Tasmanian blue gum,
White eucalyptus,
Flooded gum, etc.’
qalatstsiino nf canine tooth
qalbe nm 1. mind 2. heart ~
qalbi-basaaka nf satisfaction
qalbishite vII to focus one’s
attention on sth, to concentrate
qalbishitnan nm attention,
qallaasi nm pivot, joint
qamiisha nf shirt
qamish nf dress ~
qamish-wishthi nf petticoat
qammiice vII to pinch
qammiico nf pinch
qamute nf staring at
(smb or sth), searching, seeking,
looking for
qanna nf music, song
qannishe vII to sing
qarada nm contrast, quarrel,
qaranthith nf bag, cloth bag
qarbat nf skin
qarcat nm place of rest for
flocks and cattle, courtyard, farmyard
qarce nf cleaness; ~ qarce-le
vIII to be clean
qarce-le see qarce
qarcowe vII to become clean
qarcoyshe vII to clean
qarfa nf cinnamon
qarxet nf cover, woven
from dried palm leaf,
used for covering bowls of food
qasban nm by obligation
qasbishe vII to oblige, to force
qasbiya nf obligation
qashasha nm delusion, illusion
qashshe nm Christian priest
qath qaatha nf shiver, shudder
qath qath-erxhe vIV intr to shiver,
to shudder, to tremble, to judder
qatsala nf layer
qatsuwe nf dislocation, sprain
qaxwa nf coffee (beverage)
qayde nm 1. prison 2. the action
to tie the leg to prevent movement
(of animals)
qilba nf north ~ Qilbat-Ameerika
nf North America
Qilbat-Ameerika see qilba
qillacaw nm species of tree(s)
(Euclea schimperi=E.racemosa)
qiltsim nm forearm
qinqin nm trembling, quivering
qinqin-erhxe vIV intr to tremble,
to shake tr qinqin-ishe
qinrib nm 1. eyelash(es)
2. top(s) of an ear of corn
qiraa-a nf reading, learning
qitirti nf peg used to join the beam
of a plough to the ploughshare
qitscat nm punishment
qiyaas nm measurement of the
lenght of sth
qiyar nm changing, shifting
qobba nf 1. Minaret
2. small hill
qoobic nm hat
qoofiyat nf men’s skull-cap
qooqax nm boulder, massif
qorboobac nm part of the yoke
qulfe nm 1. belt 2. button
qunthe nm vagina
Qur-aan nm Koran
qurrub nm ready, prepared
qurse nm breakfast
quwa nf power, force, energy




raa nf dam, reservoir
raace vII to remain, to delay
raadiyo nf radio
raat nm guide (especially
for the wedding)
raaxa nf comfort
raba nm death
rabac nm bull camel
Rabbi nm God, Lord
rabca nm harvest season
(in the highland)
rabe vII to die
rabsha nf disturbance,
rabuc nm Wednesday
racnan nm remaining, d
racto nf remainder
radde nm answer ~
radde oxoye vI to answer
rade vII to fall
radiid nm full beard
radnan nm fall, falling
rado nf strip of leather
ragad nm belt
rahyat nf pupil (of the eye)
raja nf hope, wish ~
rajat-girco nm disappointment
rakhbe nm conference
rakhiis nm cheap thing
rakub nm bull camel
ramac-erhxe vIV intr to
descend, to go down
var ramac-e; tr ramac-ishe to lower
ramacta nf bottom,
low place, inferior part,
ramadaan nm fast
Rashayida nf Rashaida
rashshä nf dead person,
corpse (female)
rashsha nm dead person,
corpse (male)
raxeena nf spring (of water),
raxma nf mercy, pity, compassion,
sympathy, ~ raxma-le vIII to be pitiful/
raxma-male vIII to be pitiless, to be
not compassionate, to be
raxma-le see raxma
raxma-male see raxma
raxmat nm rain
reeza nf pride
reezanto nm chief, leader
reeze vII to be proud
reezeenä nf proud person (female)
reezeena nm proud person (male)
rib nm proximity, vicinity, side !
ribille near, beside
riba nf usury
ribille see rib
ribta nm cheetah
riga nf ranging, lining up
rigdo nf dance (traditional)
rig-erhxe vIV intr to be straight tr
rig-ishe to straighten, to put
rigid nm low place, inferior part,
rii nm proximity, vicinity, side !
riille near, beside
riille see rii
riish nm first-born
rimid nm 1. root(s) 2. nerve(s)
rimmi nm termite(s)
riqhaaqhe nf 1. thinness
2. lightness, delicacy (of food)
riqhiqha vIII 1. to be thin
2. to be light/to be delicate (of food)
risaas nm pencil(s)
riste nm 1. property in land
2. inheritance
rixdo nf young heifer goat
rob nm rain ~ rob rade vII to rain
roblaano nf aeroplane/airplane pl
roblaanit m; ~ roblaanooti-macrafo
nf airport
robraat nf rainbow
rocda nf excitement, agitation
rokhsa nf permission, authorization
roomi nf knife
roora nf gradient, uphill
rooxe nm 1. body 2. breath 3. spirit,
soul pl rooxit m; ~ rooxi-dhamto
nf sense organs
rubuc nm a quarter
rufenta-le see rufto
rufto nf satisfaction ~ rufenta-le vIII
to be at rest, to be comfortable
rugä nf heifer calf
ruga nm bull calf
rukab stirrup
rukta nf 1. weakness, feebleness
2. softness, tenderness
rukuta vIII 1. to be weak
2. to be not fat (of people and
animals) 3. to be soft/tender
(of things and foods)
rumma nm 1. truth 2. justice pl
rummit m; ! rummah truly, indeed,
actually ~ rumma-le vIII to be truthful
rummah see rumma
rumma-le see rumma
ruuz nm rice
ruwat nm butter (before boiling),
butter for hair




saabun nm soap
saaca nm hour, watch
saagan nm tamarisk(s)
(Tamarix aphylla, T. nilotica)
Saaganayti nf (city of) Segeneyti
Saaho nf Saho
saalosnan nm infibulating,
saar nm goatskin bag
saaringida nf scraps
(of ‘dagxa’)
saathic nm cold (illness)
saathicite vII to catch a cold
saaweeriye vII to soar, to glide
saaxib nm friend(s)
saayis nm politician (male)
saayisa nf politician (female)
sabab nf cause, reason,
sabace vII to hit, to beat,
to strike
sabbatah pt reason for,
the reason why
sabbuura nf 1. blackboard
2. table, plate
sabco nf hit rel to sabace,
sabre nm self-control, endurance,
patience, forbearance
saca nm herd(s), flock(s), cattle
sacal nm brother
sacla nf sister
sacuulinno nm brotherhood
sadaqha nf offering to God, sacrifice
safar nm journey, travel, trip, tour,
voyage, excursion
safare vII to journey,
to travel
safari traveller(s)
safiir nm ambassador
safrä nf hunger
safra nm measure
safriishe vII to make hungry
safriite vII to be hungry
safriiteenä nf hungry person
safriiteena nm hungry person
saga nf cow
sagab nm young buck goat
sagal num nine ~ sagal ya/masaggala
num nineth, sagala taman ninety
sahiil nm simplicity, easy
sajjaala nf tape
sakakishe vII to make yawn
sakakite vII to yawn
sakako nf yawn
sakar nm intoxication, drunkennes
sakay nm food for a journey,
packed lunch
sakna nf leprosy
sakraan nm sot, drunkard (male)
sakraana nf sot, drunkard (female)
salaam nm peace (used also as
salaam-erhxe vIV intr to greet tr s
salaamta nf greeting
salaat nm prayer
salaatha nf salad
salaaxa nf reconciliation
salaba nf scar
salada nf top layer of cream
(on milk)
Saluus nm Tuesday
sambat only in cindha sambat
(see cindha) and naba sambat
(see naba)
sam-erhxe vIV intr to descend,
to go down tr sam-ishe to lower
samta nf 1. bottom, low place,
inferior part, underneath
2. geographical depression
san nm nose ~ santi-curumto
nf nostril, santi-kafna nf annoying,
bothering, irritating , santi-kafnite
vII to annoyed, to bother, to irritate
Sancafe nm (city of) Senafe
sandali nm sandal
sanduqh nm suitcase, box, case,
sanii nm Monday
santiim nf cent
santishe vII to guide, to lead
santisheenä nf guide (female)
santisheena nm guide (male),
santishnan nm guiding, leading
sanune nm a nosebleed
sanunute vII to suffer a nosebleed
sanuqhe nm strangling
sara nm garments
saraw nm species of acacia(s)
(Acacia etbaica)
sarba nf calf, lower leg
sareena nf garment, cloth
sariida nf species of juniper(s)
‘African pencil cedar, East African
pencil cedar’ (Juniperus procera)
sariigalla nf victory
sarishe vII to dress
sarite vII to wear, to dress oneself
sarrä nf tail
sarra nm 1. back, rear 2. later time !
2. sarrah after, afterwards, later,
then, sarrat ~ sarrat-zaban nm next year
sarraximbo nf squirrel
sarroorim n last ! sarroorimille eventually
sarrowe vII to be late, to happen afterwards
sarwe nf pole(s), support(s) (for the ‘naxsa’)
saw nf women
sawale vII to twist (tr)
sawalime vII to be twisted
sawra nf revolution
sawwaag nm driver
saxdad nm catlike animal, genet
(Genetta Abyssinica)
saxe vII to churn
saxnan nm churn , churning
saxraa nf desert
saxte nm rarity, rareness! saxteeko
unusually, rarely
saxwe nm scattering, strewing
say def female, feminine (gender)
saye vII to enter
sayne nm June
saynis nm science
sayyo nf women
sazzam num thirty
sebbere n species of legume, grass pea
‘Chickling vetch, jarosse, Lathyrus
pea’ (Lathyrus sativus)
seben nf ewe which has not yet
given birth
seelan nm mat made of plant fibre
sef nm sword
sekkello nf bucket
sekkendi nf second (of time)
sele vII 1. to check, to be sure
2. to target
selel-erhxe vIV intr to float (on
the water), to soar, to glide tr selelishe
selo nm checking, assuring, assurance
shaahi nf tea
shaahid nm witness
shaama nf flag
shaaric nf street
shabath nm rubbers sandals, slippers
shahiid nm martyr (male)
shahiida nf martyr (female)
shakke nm suspicion, doubt, uncertainty
shakkite vII to suspect, to doubt
shambuqqo nf common reed
shanab nm moustache
shantha nf bag
shaqhamthe nf species of fig
tree(s) (Ficus glumosa)
shaqhatha nm business, trade
shaqhla nf anxiety, worry
shaqqaala nm worker(s)
sharak nf trap
sharcalla pt excuse me, please
sharfe nm exchange (money)
sharhbac nf type of snake
shariith nm 1. cartridge-belt
2. cassette
sharki nm shark
sharraax nm magician, wizard,
sharraaxit nf witch, sorceress
sharxe nm explanation, exposition
shaxan nm dish, plate
sheedali nf first brew of coffee
sheekhino nm holiness
sheethan nm Satan, devil, demon
shekh nm muslim priest, muslim
follower, holy person
sherneella nm zip, zip fastener
shicriya nf pasta
shigaara nf cigarette(s)
shiix num thousand ~ shiix ya
num thousandth
shiliin nf fifty cents
shimca nf candle(s)
shiqhaaqh nm toilet
shirxe nm magic, sorcery,
shokkar nm sugar
shugguth nm pistol, gun
shukran! pt thanks! thank you!
shuqhle nm work, job rel to
shaqqaala, ushtuqhule, uyshuqhule
~ shuqhli-manga nf business
shuum nm chief, boss
shuuma nf maize-cob(s)
sibbarh nm container used to
do the butter, churn
sibirh nm species of shrub(s)
(Phytolacca dodecandra)
sicret nm defeat
sidishe vII to spread out
(a carpet, a mat)
sido nm skin, mat (of
tanned leather)
sifo nm long hair of an
animal’s tail
sifra nf camp, encampment
sige vII to settle, to dwell
signan nm settling, dwelling
siica nm species of acacia(s)
‘Umbrella thorn’ (Acacia abyssinica)
siile nm picture, illustration,
photo ~ siileh-iywiddixe vI to illustrate
(with picture, etc)
siilnan nm drawing, taking picture
siiximite vII to go down the wrong
way (of food or liquid)
siiximo nf food or liquid that is
gone down to the wrong way
sik-erhxe vIV intr to be (keep)
silent, to be quiet tr sik-ishe to silence,
to hush, to quiet/quieten
sikkin nf jack-knife
sikko nf quietness, tranquillity, silence
silaalite vII to shelter (from the sun)
silaalo nf umbrella
silal nm shade, shadow
silansil nm chain
silliya nf espionage, spy
simbaace vII to tear away, to snatch,
to take by force, to requisition (goods)
simbacnan nm snatching, requisition
simbiliilico nf butterfly(-ies)
simimmic nm agreement
sin1 pos your
sin2 pr (short non-subject form) you
sina pr (long non-subject form) you
sinistira nf window
sinit nf agreement
sinne pr ref yourselves, themselves
sinni pos ref your own
sinqicite vII to hiccup, to hiccough
sinqico nf hiccup, hiccough
sinraa nm wheat
siraa nm poison (not from animals),
siraat nf kind of stick, club
siraaxe vII to build, to make
siraye nf 1. strength, difficulty
2. danger 3. seriousness
sircat nm law
sirdi nf type of grass
siriya vIII 1. to be strong, to
be hard, to be difficult
2. to be dangerous
3. to be serious ~ sirii-gilix m terror
sirre1 nm secret
sissaake nf 1. lightness, softness
2. quickness
sissika vIII 1. to be soft, to be light
2. to be fast, to be quick
sittiya pr rec each other
siyaam nm fast
siyaasa nf politics
soddom num thirty
soko nm rarity, rareness !
sokooko rarely
soldi nf money
songaaro nf baobab
(Adansonia digitata)
sonnat nm menstruation
sontoxite vII to glide, to slide,
to slip
sontoxitnan nm gliding, sliding,
Soodan nf Sudan
soogo nf 1. tendril(s) 2. phrase
sooke vII to twist (tr), to whirl,
to plait (rope)
sookeenä nf weaver (female)
sookeena nm weaver (male)
soole vII 1. to stand, to stand up
2. to get up 3. to stop
soolima nm 1. standing, standing up
2. getting up 3. stopping
soolnan nm 1. standing, standing up
2. getting up 3. stopping
Soomaliya nf Somalia
soomam nm touch, sens of touching
soonite vII to dream
soono nf dream
soonowa nf pregnant woman
soonoyinno nm pregnancy (of woman)
soonoyishe vII to make pregnant
soonoyite vII to be pregnant
sootal nm dagger
soqh nm shop area
sorha nf ignorance
sorhe vII not to know, to be ignorant of,
to be unaware of
sorheenä nf ignorant person (female)
sorheena nm ignorant person (male)
soro nf rope (to tie goods on the animals)
soxbinna nm friendship
subax nm clarified butter
subula nm sycamore fig(s) (Ficus sycomorus)
subxe nm dawn
sucto nf hiding, hiding-place
sucuse vII to hide (tr)
sucute vII to hide (intr)
sudda nf hump, hunch
suge vII to stay, to keep, to wait
sugum nm small rainy season
(in the highland)
sukat nm butter (before boiling),
butter for hair
sukuukuwe vII to accompany
smb part of the way
sulluc nm peeling(s)
sulluucuse vII to peel
suluxa nm species of tree(s)
‘Small-fruited teclea’ (Teclea nobilis)
sulxaane nf smoothness
sulxuna vIII to be smooth
summe nm poison
(not from animals), toxin
summuse vII to poison
sune nf heel
sunfa nm garden cress
sunku nf shoulder
surre nf trousers
suuf nm wool
suumute vII to be stingy
suunun nm disgust
suununute vII 1. to be bored
2. to be disgusted
suuro nf door of the stable
suwaa nm not harvested grain
suwaye vII to ripen (of cereals) (intr)
suxug nm species of acacia(s)
‘Wait-a-bit thorn’
(Acacia asak)




ta dem this (near the speaker)!
takke/talle here
taane vII to be tired, to get tired
taaniyo nf tiredness
taariikh nm history
tabab nm species of shrub(s)
(Becium grandiflorum)
tabarruc nm donation, contribution,
grant, gift
tabe vII to cross over, to go across
tabishe vII 1. to transfer, to pass on
2. to transcript, to transmit
3. to infect, to contaminate
tabnan nm 1. transcription
2. crossing over
tabsö nf crossing, bridge
tabso nm being infected, infection,
tacab nm suffering, pain, effort,
tiredness, fatigue
tacliim nm education, instruction,
tacriifa nf coin
tacziya nf honouring, celebrating
tafjiir nm munition
tafsiir nm interpretation, translation
takale nf cause, reason
takare vII to hang
takarnan nm hanging
takke see ta
takle nm plant(s)
talafoon nm telephone
talle see ta
talule nm rolling (of a carpet,
a paper, etc)
tamaa dem that
taman num ten ~ taman ya/matammana
num tenth
tamre nm date palm(s) (Phoenix dactylifera)
tamuttukem nm projectile
tanaka nf tin, can
tandur nm stove for baking bread; ~
tandur-folo nf kind of bread
tanto nf tiredness
taraafik nm traffic
tarjama nf interpretation, translation rel
to turjumaan, unturjume, uturjume,
tastaa nm ox, bullock
tasxiix nm correction, adjustment
tathawwur nm progress, civilization,
taxag nm type of grass
taxsaas nm December
tazkira nf memory
tee1 pos her
tee2 pr (short non-subject form) her
tee3! pt ‘Hey!’ (said to a woman)
teelo nf nutrition
teker nm sauce
tekerishe vII to dunk (the bread)
telefeerikka nf cable-car
televiziyon nf television
temmelekko nm species of tree(s)
(Celtis africana)
ten1 pos their
ten2 pr (short non-subject form)
tena pr (long non-subject form)
tenda nf tentpl tendad/tenod
termometer nf thermometer
Teseney nf (city of) Tesseney
teya pr (long non-subject form) her
teyya pr (long non-subject form) her
thaabita nf kind of bread
thaagiya nf cap
thabaashir nm chalk
thabab nm project, plan, invention
thabiica nf nature
thacasa nf regret, remorse
thahaara nf 1. ablution, cleaning
2. circumcision
thalaaqh nm divorce
thalume nm abandonment, desertion,
thammaac nm stingy person
tharaaco nf complaint, claim
tharaf nm part, side
tharbats nm hurry, urgency, speed
tharmuuz nf bottle (of glass)
thawla nf table
thayyaara nf aeroplane (airplane)
pl thayyaarar m ~ thayyaarat-boorha
nf airport
Thilyaan nm Italian
thimmiiqho nf drop(s)
thimmiqh-erhxe vIV intr to
drip tr thimmiqh-ishe
thinqaaqhe nf care, attention, caution
thinqillico nf spark
thiqqimti nf October
thiraa pt always
thircaan nm complaining, claiming
thirqo nf 1. drop(s) 2. a few, a little
thirre nm January
thoob nm brick(s)
thufeena nf saliva
thuf-erhxe vIV intr to spit (saliva)
thummut nm certainty !
thummutuh certainly
thummutuh see thummut
thurraafe nf packing, putting together
thurumba nf trumpet
thuth nm cotton
thuufa nf spit (of saliva)
Tigre nf Tigre
Tigrigna nf Tigrinya
tika nm smoke
tikib nm species of acacia(s)
tikilbe nf species of shrub(s)
or small tree(s) (Pterolobium stellatum)
tikkayshe vII to smoke
tikket nf ticket
tiklo nf 1. planting 2. Foundation
(of a house)
tiko nf kite
tillaabe vII to pass through, to go by
, to surpass
tillab nm passing, transmission,
passing up
tillallaabe vII to transmit frequently
tillallaabishe vII 1. to cause
to transmit frequently
2. to be transparent
timbaakiyot nf millipede
timbaako nf tobacco
timnit nf desire, wish, will
tiraakter nf tractor
tiraare nf strongness, hardness
tiraw nm liver
tire vII to jump, to skip
tirim nm jump, skip
tirishshi nf machine-gun
tirnan nm jumping, skipping
tishshu nf tissue (in biology)
titaanos nf tetany
tittiya pr rec 1. each other
2. one by one
tiyaatir nm theatre
tiyak see tiya
to dem that (near the addressee) !
togedda since, tokkelle/tolle
there cf amaa, ay1, oo/woo, ta, too
tokkat nf arm-band
tokla nm type of wolf
too dem that (remote from the
speaker and the addressee)
tooba nf repentance
toohille! /toolle there
torhonka nf speech defect,
speech impediment
tsabre nf waiting
tsaclawaalid nm type of grass
tsafco nf slap
tsafuce vII to slap
tsagar nm joke
tsaggarowe vII to joke, to tell jokes
tsamuqhe nm 1. wringing, squeeze
, filtration 2. summary
tsaxla nm earthen pot
tsaxya nf heap of stones
tsaxyaa nm weed
tseefa nf corner of the eye
tsexreriteena nf temple
tsiiqha nf spit (of saliva or water)
tsiiqh-erhxe vIV intr to spit out
(saliva or water)
tsiixil nm sand
tsiret nm cleaness, tidiness,
tsirga nf road
tsummaaqh nm fruit-juice
tuffaax nm apple(s)
tufrha nf washing one’s face
tuful nm thread
tugtug nf motor-cycle
tukan nm flea(s)
tukkununnu nm circle
turjumaan nm translator
tuumaare vII to make a sign,
to mark
tuumar nm mark, identifying




ubbuxute vI to own, to possess,
to have
ubka nf birth rel to maabako, ooboke ~
ubkat-lellec nm birthday,
ubkat-makaano nf birthplace
ubkat-lellec see ubka
ubkat-makaano see ubka
uble vI to see
ucbude vI to worship, to adorate
uckure vI to store
ucluwe vI to escape, to flee,
to run away
ucrufe vI to rest
ucundhuwe vI to become small
ucussube vI to become new,
to be refreshed
udduuniya nf the world
udhdhurhe vI to become short
udluse vI to become thick,
to become stout
udruse vI to learn
udumdume vI to become blunt,
to become not sharp
ufayle nf living thing(s)
uffutute vI to stretch one’s legs
ufkune vI 1. to turn (intr)
2. to turn ones head towards,
to face towards
ufuca nm cough
ufuce vII to cough
ugra nf hit
ugshuwe vI to thin out (seedlings)
ugut nm 1. standing 2. departure
ugute vII 1. to get up, to stand up,
to wake up 2. to depart imp
uguugus nm incitement
uguuguse vII to incite, to spur,
to implicate
ugux nm pen, stable for little
animals (sheep, goats)
ujjuure vI to shift (tr)
ukhdume vI to serve, to work
ukhluqhe vI to create
uktube vI to write
ukummuse vI to crouch (down),
to squat
ukunkune vI to shiver,
to shudder
ukuskuse vI to weed, to hoe,
to turn over (the soil)
ukuxdude vI to squat, to crouch
ukuxkuxe vI to knock
ulah pt alone
ulle-ulle nm descent
ulluse vII to put down, to unload
uluc nm intestine
uluuse vI to knead, to mix
uma vIII to be bad
umaani nf badness, wickedness,
evil, sin
umbah pt so
umbuka ind all
umbulluwe vI to appear, to be seen
umcuge vI to be buried
umla nf woman in childbirth ~
umlat-ina nf midwife
umlaalo nf birth (process of birth),
umman ind all, every! ummando
almost, little bit, ummangedda
always, ummangeddabalih usually,
like always, as usual, ummanikkelle/
ummanille/ ummanirkelle everywhere,
ummantiya everybody, everyone
ummando see umman
ummangedda see umman
ummangeddabalih see umman
ummanikkelle see umman
ummanille see umman
ummanirkelle see umman
ummantiya see umman
umrure vI to be dissolved, amrar,
aymarar, uymurure, ussumurrure ~
amrurinnexe macaasha nf
undigested food
umudhdhuwe vI to be tied,
to be prisoned
umule vII to bear (a child)
umun nm faithful person
umundhuce vI to sink
umxukume vI 1. to be medicated
2. to be judged
undhuce vI to swallow
undufule vI 1. to fight, to struggle
2. to work hard, to toil
unkoh ind all, entirely,
as a whole, both
unnaya vIII to be wet
unnaye vII to become wet
unnayshe vII to wet
unqule vI to copy
unquse vI to be decreased,
to be subctrated
unqutstsuwe vI to get dislocated,
to sprain
unraye vII to smell (intr),
to stink
unrayshinnan nm smelling
unrayshite vII to smell (tr),
to sniff
untufurhe vI to wash one’s face
unug nm species of tree(s)
(Albizia amara)
uqhlufe vI to lock, to shut,
to close, to button
uqhruse vI to breakfast
uqqususe vI to repeat
uray nm 1. work, activity
2. celebration for a dead person, funeral
~ uray-manga nf business
ure1 nm smell, odour, scent,
sens of smell
ure2 vII to be well, to recover
from sickness
urgufe vII to shake off
urgufnan nm shaking
urgufo nf the act to shaking
urhaarhe nf shortness
urhurha vIII to be short ~
urhurh-waqhte nm moment
urhuwe vI to tie, to bind
urhxurhe vI to pin (basket)
urkute vI to become weak,
to become thin
urnan nm recovery (from an illness)
urtuufa nm the year before last year
uruse vII to cure
urxude vI to slaughter, to butcher
uscussube vI to repair, to refresh (tr)
usfure vI to measure out,
to measure the weight of
ushshurufe vI to change money
ushtuqhule vI to serve, to work
uskute vI to rub with butter,
to grease, to anoint
usluge vI 1. to defeat
2. to be acquitted
usmuqhe vI to wring out,
to squeezeimp asmuqhe
ussuxuttute vI to wonder,
to surprise, to amaze
ustaaz nm teacher (male)
ustaaza nf teacher (female)
usuk pr he
usulxune vI to become smooth
usun pr they
usxukume vI to medicate,
to treat
utka nf 1. hit 2. shot
utlule vI to furl, to roll up
uturjume vI to interpret,
to translate
uxfuse vI to scoop up (with a scoop
or by hand)
uxkume vI 1. to rule 2. to decide,
to judge, to give a sentence
uxmude vI to praise
uxmuge vI to bleed (tr)
uxruse vI to plough/plow
uxtume vI to close, to close up,
to plug, to block
uxulkuse vI to make enemies,
to create enmity/hostility
uxullufe vI to measure in cubits
(a cubit extends from the elbow to the
uxun nm wasp
uxurtume vI to be angry,
o be annoyed
uybulluwe vI to show
uybuxute vI to give out, t
o consign
uydumdume vI to blunt,
to cause to be not sharp
uyduruse vI to teach,
to educate
uymurure vI to dissolve
uynuqhuse vI to subtract,
to deduct
uyshushshule vI to joke
uysulxune vI to smooth out
uzuure vI to visit (friends, places),
to wander about




veyin nm vein
villa nm villa




waacensiite vII to control,
to scan, to peer
waacina nf view, panorama
waakishe vII to groan (intr)
(of animals)
waako nf groan (of animals)
waalideen nm parents ~
waalidot-cilme nm genealogy
waalika nf dry clay
waani nf speech, language, talk
waanishe vII to speak, to talk
waarish nm heir
waasibo nf intermarriage
(marriage between people
of different clans)
waatime vII to curse, to insult,
to swear (intr)
waato nf insult, curse
waaxeelishe vII to cause to pain
to cause to suffer
waaxelsiite vII to pain, to suffer
waaxelta nm pain, suffering
wacaggeera nm type of
monkey (Cercopithecus)
wacaro nf bitch, she-dog
wacde nm 1. promise, oath
2. appointment
wacde-le see wacde
wacde-le vIII to promise,
to swear (tr), to oath
wadag nm nape of the neck
wadhdheeceena nm thin stick
wado nf ablution
wafa nf soul, spirit, being !
wafaalih alive ~ wafa-le vIII to be alive,
to live
wafaalih see wafa
wafa-le see wafa
wagaba nf lip
waganrab nm pancreas
wagare1 nm reconcilement,
wagare2 vII to be reconciled
wagarishe vII to reconcile,
to pacify
wagiinan nm searching, seeking,
looking for
wagiye vII to search, to seek,
to look for
wagiyo nf search
wagro nm conversation,
wagroyshite vII to converse,
to discuss
wajhe nm 1. face 2. page
wakale nm vicinity, environs,
environment, surroundings
wakari nf fox
wakaye vII to drive away,
to drive out
wakaynan nm driving away,
driving out
wakayyo nf driving away,
driving out
wakiil nm spokesman,
walaa pt ~ walaa inkim nothing,
walaayekkemih pt even though, however
walaalacsiite vII to bask (in the sun)
walaalacta nf basking (in the sun)
walaayekkemih see walaa
walfe nm addiction
walfite vII to be addicted
walwal nm breeze
walwalsiite vII to go out for
a breath of fresh air imp
wanchef nm sling
wannä nf owner (female)
wanna nm owner (male)
waqhaaqhac nm trouble, problem
waqhaaqhacite vII to be in trouble,
to have problem
waqhte nm time, moment, season
waraare vII to line up (tr)
waraqhat nf paper, letter
warar nm line, row, queue,
ranging, lining up
warde nm posture, structure
(of the body)
wardiya nm guard(s), watchman(-en)
ware nm news, information
warhxo nm pelt, mat (made of
not tanned leather)
warishe vII to tell, to inform
warroyshe vII to announce,
to proclaim
warsim nm inquiry/enquiry,
warsime vII to inquire/enquire,
to interview
wasan nm limit ~ wasan-tiya nm foreigner,
stranger (male) ~ wasan-tiyä nm
foreigner, stranger (female)
washaarib nm whiskers, moustache
wasiya nf will, recommendation,
testament, directive ~ wasiya xabe
vII to make one’s will, to recommend
wathan nm nationpl wathun
wathaniya nf nationality
waxaajib nm eyebrow
waybo nf species of tree(s)
(Terminalia Brownii)
waydal nm monument, statue,
waye vII to lack, to miss, to
not find
wayna nf term of address for mother,
wayrhele nf type of gazelle
‘Soemmering’s Gazelle’
(Gazella soemmeringi)
wayteenä nf poor woman
wayteena nm poor man
wayto nf lack, poverty, poorness
wazana nf 1. heart 2. diarrhoea
waze vII to nourish
wazo nm substitution,
sacrifice (unto death) ~
wazo ekke vI to sacrifice oneself
weeca nm 1. weeping
2. torrent, flood
weece vII to cry, to weep
weecishe vII 1. to cause to cry
2. to flood (tr)
weede vII to moo, to bleat
weedo nm bleat, moo, mooing
weelo nm appetite
weybo nm yellow
(because of jaundice)
winanta nm damp, dampness,
winchixti nf tray
winta nm appetite, preference,
wishal nm chock, wedge (of wood)
wofra nm 1. work (in the field,
in the bush, etc.) 2. expedition,
woo dem that var oo
woole pt or
wuli ind some, one, a, an ~
wuli baarholle ind somewherebaarholle),
wuli gedda/waqhte ind qualche volta,
wuliidhdha see wuli
wulim see wuli
wulud nm descendant
wux-erhxe vIV intr to bark




xaaja nf 1. thing, substance
2. subject
xaakim nm doctor
xaakimto nf lady doctor
xaal nm behaviour
xaaliyo nf consideration
xaaxa nm wind
xaaxayshe vII to blow
(of wind)
xaaxot nm species of shrub(s)
(Rumex usambarensis)
xaaz! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to
wild animals)
xabaza nf kind of bread
xabe vII 1. to leave, to depart,
to cease 2. to divorce
xabshe nm prison
xabshiishe vII cause to leave
xabxab nm watermelon
xadde nm decision
xadiid nm iron
xaf-erhxe vIV intr to rise
, to stand up
xaffuuse vII to inflate
xaffuwa nm inflation,
xaffuwe vII to be inflated
xafta nm height, altitude
xagaa nm dry season
xagara nf plan, programme
xage nm faeces
xaggo nf polygamy, plurality
of wives
xak nm branch (of a tree)
xalaga nm piece of cloth
xalanga nf whip
xaleele vII to cover the ceiling
of the house, to roof
xalel nm branch with leaves
for the roof of the ‘naxsa’
xalxal nm mane, crest, comb
xambooka nm species of tree(s)
(Dombeya torrida)
xamde nf praise
xamdishime vII to be praised
xamdishite vII to praise
xamla nm greens, vegetable
xamle nf July
xamus nm Thursday
xamxam nm type of gourd,
calabash ‘Bottle gourd’
xan nm milk
xanaat nf tonsil
xandhifite vII to sneeze
xandhifo nf sneeze
xane nf revenge, vengeance ~
xane ifdiye vI to avenge, xanet-fida
nm revenge, vengeance
xangal nm 1. head, mind
2. small hill
xankabishe vII to frighten,
to scare
xankabite vII to be frightened,
to be scared
xankabto nf fright, scare
xankarha nm lightning
xankiishi nf lame person/animal,
cripple (female)
xankiisho nf limping
xankish nm lame person/animal,
cripple (male)
xankish-erhxe vIV intr to
be lame
xanlake nf cumulus(-li) (type
of cloud(s))
xantiqhacashsha nm a small
type of lizard
xanxanta nf skull
xaqqe nm justice, truth, fact
xaraa nm 1. arm 2. sleeve
xarage vII to castrate, to geld
xaraka nf movement
xarare vII to burn oneself,
to scorch (intr)
xarasa nf emulation, imitation
xarashshuke nm upper arm
xarassime vII to emulate,
to imitate
xarassimeenä nf emulous,
imitator (female)
xarassimeena nm emulous,
imitator (male)
xarastaa nm peasant, grower,
xaratha nf usury
xarer nm silk
xarfe nm letter (of alphabet)
xargats nm crocodile
xarge nm castrate animal
xargitime vII to be castrated
xargo nf castration
xarha nf tree(s)
xarhakora nf type of snake
xarhe vII to pour, to spill
xarhiigo nm colostrum, first
milk after giving birth (animals)
xarich nm flour, meal
(grounded grain)
xaruqh nm anger, rage
xasaab nm thought, idea
xasama nf pig(s)
xasar nm straw
xashshu nf urine
xashshukka nf bladder
xashshuute vII to urinate
xasuu-erhxe vIV intr to
scratch oneself
xasuuwa nf 1. Scratch
2. itch
xate vII to help, to save
xateenä nf helper (female)
xateena nm helper (male)
xatnan nm helping, saving
xato nm help, support,
xatume nm print, printing
xawal nm tiredness, exhaustion
xawale vII to get tired,
to exhaust oneself
xawaz nm 1. family(-ies)
2. son(s), children
xawo nm flower pollen
xay nf satiety
xayaat nf life
xayla nm power, force,
energy ~ xayla-le vIII to
be strong, to be powerful
xaylishe vII to oblige,
to force
xayte vII to be full,
to be satiated, to
be satisfied (with food)
xazan nm mourning,
sorrow, affliction,
sadness, unhappiness
xaze vII to divide, to separate
xaziile vII to divide, to separate
xaznan nm division, dividing
xazo nf 1. meat 2. Saho
tribe’s name ~ xazot-care
nm butcher’s shop
xazziime vII to be divided
xeden nm happiness, joy
xedene vII to be happy
xedeneenä nf cheerful/happy
person (female)
xedeneena nm cheerful/happy
person (male)
xeela nf 1. care 2. cunning
xeelaatih see xeela
xeelaatih! 1. easily 2. carefully
3. slowly
xeelassiite vII 1. to be careful
2. to be cunning
xeelat nm 1. slowness
2. Easiness
3. care 4. cunning
xeere vII to be unhappy,
to be angry, to take offence
xeero nm rope, string
xeewina vIII to be narrow
xeewinta nf narrowness
xeewo nm orphan(s),
xera nf she-donkey, she ass
xeraa nm wild boar(s)
xibar-le see xibre
xibre nm similarity ~ xibar-le
vIII to be similar, to seem
xichaawich nm species of tree(s)
(Calpurnia aurea)
xida nm species of shrub(s)
(Grewia tenax)
xidaar nm November
Xidaarib nm Hedareb (people)
xiddagliido nm last-born(s)
xidhdhi nf pining (basket)
xido nf type of owl ‘Spotted
Eagle Owl’
xifisa vIII to be heavy (of food or
beverage), to be indigestible
xifze nm 1. study 2. taking care of,
conservation, protection
xigge nm law
xikkiminna nf hospital
ximbo nf foam, froth, suds
ximbolecashsho nf type of grass
from ximbo, le and cashsho
ximbowe vII to foam
ximmito nf entrails, chitterlings,
tripe (food)
xinayyo nm refusal (to do or
to obey)
xinduumute vII to be stingy
xine vII to refuse, to deny
xinna nf henna (Lawsonia inermis)
xinnan nm refusing (to do or
to obey)
xinze nm poison (of animals)
xirho nm permanent inhabitant,
xirkaam nf twenty-five cents
xirqaan nm anger, rage
xirze nm necklace (for the
protection against diseases)
xisaab nm 1. thought
2. counting, calculation, bill
3. mathematics
xisba nf clause
xishiye vII to rub, to erase,
to clean
xishiyeena nm rubber, duster
xishiyo nf friction
xishma nf respect, honour ~
xishma-le vIII to be respectable,
to be honourable
xishmate vII to respect,
to honour
xissa nf lesson
xiyaw nf people, men
xizzayit nm reserve, pasture
xokme nm 1. legal sentence,
2. system, rule
xokoma nf government
xombooba nf flower(s)
xomboobe vII to bloom
xoola nf shame, shyness, timidity
xoolashshiite vII to be shy
xoolayshe vII to cause to be shy,
to make timid
xoolim nf small valley
xoomor nm tamarind(s)
(Tamarindus indica)
xoorishe vII to be pregnant
(of animals)
xoorishnan nm pregnancy
(of animal)
xootsa nf sand ~ xootsat-kumre
nm dune
xuduud nm boundary, border,
xugga nm neighbour/neighbor(s)
xukuknan nm 1. Scratching
2. smoothing
xukuuke vII 1. to scratch (intr)
2. to smooth (tr)
xulkaase nf enmity, hostility
xulkusnan nm making enemies,
creating enmity, hostility
xullufta nf elbow
xuluf nm cubit
xundub nm navel
xunsuuse vII to remember (tr)
xur! pt ‘Go away!’ (said to dogs)
xurhum nm species of shrub(s)
(Suaeda monoica)
xurriya nf 1. freedom
2. independence
xurtaame nm anger, rage
xuruuf nm alphabet, letters
xuse vII to mention
xushukshuk-erhxe vIV intr to whisper,
to murmur tr xushukshuk-ishe
xushukshuuka nf whispering,
xutuk nm star(s)
xuwwar nm young camel (younger
than ‘mafruddo’)




Yalla nm God
Yaman nm Yemen
yangulä nf hyena (female)
yangula nm hyena (male)
yaqhiin pt of course, necessarily,
yetta pr (long non-subject form)
me var yoo1/yowa/yoyya
yi1 pos my
yi2 pr (short non-subject form)
mecf anu, yetta/yoo1/yowa/yoyya
yol mabbarhin see ibbirhe
yoo1 pr me var yetta/yowa/yoyya
yoo2 pt yes
yowa pr (long non-subject form)
me var yoo1/yetta/yoyya
yoyya pr (long non-subject form)
me var yoo1/yetta/yowa




zaabe vII to bend
zaabite vII to bend
zaaren nm mediator
zabalö nf new-born( female),
zabalo nm new-born, baby-boy
zaban nm era, epoch, age, year
zabbite vII to swim
zabbo nm swim
zabiib nm vineyard
zabta nm threshing (by hand)
zacabah pt about
zagaxa nf quarrel, argument
zagra nf type of large bird,
zama nm brother-in-law (sister’s
husband and wife’s brother)
zamad nm 1. relatives, kinship
2. kind of
zamatto nf sister-in-law
(brother’s wife and wife’s sister)
zambil nf basket
zanan nm he-donkey, he-ass
zanbe nm sin
zangada nm type of cereal(s)
(Eleusine multiflora)
zanta nf story, narration, fable
, legend
zarä nf flowing small stream, rivulet,
zara nm seed(s), ~ zari-ambattan nm
seed dispersal, zariasqayyar
nm crop rotation
zaraabic nm young bull
zarafe vII to tear away, to snatch,
to take by force, to requisition (goods)
zare vII to flow
zarfo nf snatching, requisition
zariica nf agriculture ~ zariica
baclayshe vII to cultivate
zate nf discussion
zatteye vII to confer, to bestow
zattowe vII to treat (intr), to discuss,
to negotiate
zaytuun nm guava (Psidium
zazac nm short rainy season
(in the lowland)
zazace vII to do the transhumance
(seasonal moving of the livestock)
to the lowland
zazco nf transhumance
(seasonal moving of the livestock)
to the lowland
zeega nm vagina
zeere vII to shout, to cry out,
to yell, to scream, to shriek,
calling out in need
zeero nf shout, yell, scream, shriek
zeet nm oil
zerraaf nf giraffe
zibbowe vII to be alone
zibo nm 1. uninhabited place
2. wild rel to zibbowe; ~
zibi-okolo nm zebra
zidhdhiime vII to speak, to talk
zifo nm ray/beam (of light)
zifra nf part, side
ziig-erhxe vIV intr to stay for
a short time with
ziizza nm beetle, coleoptera,
dung-roller beetle
zikra nf memory
ziliilico nm ray/beam (of light)
zingo nf roof of zink
zirab nm lying, lie, zirabbite ~
zirab-le vIII to be a liar
zirabbite vII to lie
zirho nm speech, language, talk
ziyaada nf abundance, surplus
ziyaade vII to surpass, ziyaade,
ziyaadishe ! ziyaadah abundantly
ziyaadishe vII to increase
ziyaara nf pilgrimage
ziyaarite vII to be pilgrim
ziyaariteenä nf pilgrim (female)
ziyaariteena nm pilgrim (male)
zizzaale nf honeybee(s); ~
nm queen bee
zokhma nf cold (illness)
zoobä nf region
zooba nm mate(s), friend(s)
zoxishe vII to erode
zoxximnan nm erosion
zubbe nm penis
zuhre nm 1. muslim prayer time
(about at 12pm -2 p.m.)
2. early afternoon
zuknan nm rubbing, dusting,
zulluwa nf wandering
zulluwe vII to wander
zumam nm nose ring for wife
zuret nm promenade, walk
zurriya nf line of descent,
lineage, progeny
zuruuf nm situation
zuuke vII to rub, to dust,
to clean
zuuluc nm anus
zuwa nf herding
zuwe vII to herd
zuweenä nf shepherdess
zuweena nm shepherd,